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Preface. PART I: INTRODUCTION. 1 Fusion Welding Processes. 1.1 Overview. 1.2 Oxyacetylene Welding. 1.3 Shielded Metal Arc Welding. 1.4 Gas-Tungsten Arc Welding. 1.5 Plasma Arc Welding. 1.6 Gas-Metal Arc Welding. 1.7 Flux-Core Arc Welding. 1.8 Submerged Arc Welding. 1.9 Electroslag Welding. 1.10 Electron Beam Welding. 1.11 Laser Beam Welding. References. Further Reading. Problems. 2 Heat Flow in Welding. 2.1 Heat Source. 2.2 Analysis of Heat Flow in Welding. 2.3 Effect of Welding Parameters. 2.4 Weld Thermal Simulator. References. Further Reading. Problems. 3 Chemical Reactions in Welding. 3.1 Overview. 3.2 Gas-Metal Reactions. 3.3 Slag-Metal Reactions. References. Further Reading. Problems. 4 Fluid Flow and Metal Evaporation in Welding. 4.1 Fluid Flow in Arcs. 4.2 Fluid Flow in Weld Pools. 4.3 Metal Evaporation. 4.4 Active Flux GTAW. References. Further Reading. Problems. 5 Residual Stresses, Distortion, and Fatigue. 5.1 Residual Stresses. 5.2 Distortion. 5.3 Fatigue. 5.4 Case Studies. References. Further Reading. Problems. PART II: THE FUSION ZONE. 6 Basic Solidification Concepts. 6.1 Solute Redistribution during Solidification. 6.2 Solidification Modes and Constitutional Supercooling. 6.3 Microsegregation and Banding. 6.4 Effect of Cooling Rate. 6.5 Solidification Path. References. Further Reading. Problems. 7 Weld Metal Solidification I: Grain Structure. 7.1 Epitaxial Growth at Fusion Boundary. 7.2 Nonepitaxial Growth at Fusion Boundary. 7.3 Competitive Growth in Bulk Fusion Zone. 7.4 Effect of Welding Parameters on Grain Structure. 7.5 Weld Metal Nucleation Mechanisms. 7.6 Grain Structure Control. References. Further Reading. Problems. 8 Weld Metal Solidification II: Microstructure within Grains. 8.1 Solidification Modes. 8.2 Dendrite and Cell Spacing. 8.3 Effect of Welding Parameters. 8.4 Refining Microstructure within Grains. References. Further Reading. Problems. 9 Post-Solidification Phase Transformations. 9.1 Ferrite-to-Austenite Transformation in Austenitic Stainless Steel Welds. 9.2 Austenite-to-Ferrite Transformation in Low-Carbon, Low-Alloy Steel Welds. References. Further Reading. Problems. 10 Weld Metal Chemical Inhomogeneities. 10.1 Microsegregation. 10.2 Banding. 10.3 Inclusions and Gas Porosity. 10.4 Inhomogeneities Near Fusion Boundary. 10.5 Macrosegregation in Bulk Weld Metal. References. Further Reading. Problems. 11 Weld Metal Solidification Cracking. 11.1 Characteristics, Cause, and Testing. 11.2 Metallurgical Factors. 11.3 Mechanical Factors. 11.4 Reducing Solidification Cracking. 11.5 Case Study: Failure of a Large Exhaust Fan. References. Further Reading. Problems. PART III: THE PARTIALLY MELTED ZONE. 12 Formation of the Partially Melted Zone. 12.1 Evidence of Liquation. 12.2 Liquation Mechanisms. 12.3 Directional Solidification of Liquated Material. 12.4 Grain Boundary Segregation. 12.5 Grain Boundary Solidification Modes. 12.6 Partially Melted Zone in Cast Irons. References. Problems. 13 Difficulties Associated with the Partially Melted Zone. 13.1 Liquation Cracking. 13.2 Loss of Strength and Ductility. 13.3 Hydrogen Cracking. 13.4 Remedies. References. Problems. PART IV: THE HEAT-AFFECTED ZONE. 14 Work-Hardened Materials. 14.1 Background. 14.2 Recrystallization and Grain Growth in Welding. 14.3 Effect of Welding Parameters and Process. References. Further Reading. Problems. 15 Precipitation-Hardening Materials I: Aluminum Alloys. 15.1 Background. 15.2 Al-Cu-Mg and Al-Mg-Si Alloys. 15.3 Al-Zn-Mg Alloys. 15.4 Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys. References. Further Reading. Problems. 16 Precipitation-Hardening Materials II: Nickel-Base Alloys. 16.1 Background. 16.2 Reversion of Precipitate and Loss of Strength. 16.3 Postweld Heat Treatment Cracking. References. Further Reading. Problems. 17 Transformation-Hardening Materials: Carbon and Alloy Steels. 17.1 Phase Diagram and CCT Diagrams. 17.2 Carbon Steels. 17.3 Low-Alloy Steels. 17.4 Hydrogen Cracking. 17.5 Reheat Cracking. 17.6 Lamellar Tearing. 17.7 Case Studies. References. Further Reading. Problems. 18 Corrosion-Resistant Materials: Stainless Steels. 18.1 Classification of Stainless Steels. 18.2 Austenitic Stainless Steels. 18.3 Ferritic Stainless Steels. 18.4 Martensitic Stainless Steels. 18.5 Case Study: Failure of a Pipe. References. Further Reading. Problems. Index.