Table of contents for The craft of research / Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, Joseph M. Williams.


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Preface
I RESEARCH, RESEARCHERS, AND READERS
PROLOGUE: STARTING A RESEARCH PROJECT
1 Thinking in Print: The Uses of Research, Public and Private
1.1 What Is Research?
1.2 Why Write It Up?
1.3 Why a Formal Report?
1.4 Conclusion
2 Connecting with Your Reader: (Re)Creating Your Self and
Your Audience
2.1 Creating Roles for Writers and Readers
2.2 Creating a Relationship with Your Reader: Your Role
2.3 Creating the Other Half of the Relationship: The Reader’s Role
2.4 Writing in Groups
2.5 Managing the Unavoidable Problem of Inexperience
Quick Tip: A Checklist for Understanding Your Readers
II ASKING QUESTIONS, FINDING ANSWERS
PROLOGUE: PLANNING YOUR PROJECT
3 From Topics to Questions
3.1 From an Interest to a Topic
3.2 From a Broad Topic to a Focused One
3.3 From a Focused Topic to Questions
3.4 From a Merely Interesting Question to Its Wider Significance
Quick Tip: Finding Topics
4 From Questions to Problems
4.1 Problems, Problems, Problems
4.2 The Common Structure of Problems
4.3 Finding a Good Research Problem
4.4 Summary: The Problem of the Problem
Quick Tip: Disagreeing with Your Sources
5 From Problems to Sources
5.1 Screening Sources for Reliability
5.2 Locating Printed and Recorded Sources
5.3 Finding Sources on the Internet
5.4 Gathering Data Directly from People
5.5 Bibliographic Trails
5.6 What You Find
6 Using Sources
6.1 Three Uses for Sources
6.2 Read Generously but Critically
6.3 Preserving What You Find
6.4 Get Help
Quick Tip: Speedy Reading
III MAKING A CLAIM AND SUPPORTING IT
PROLOGUE: PULLING TOGETHER YOUR ARGUMENT
7 Making Good Arguments: An Overview
7.1 Argument and Conversation
7.2 Basing Claims on Reasons
7.3 Basing Reasons on Evidence
7.4 Acknowledging and Responding to Alternatives
7.5 Warranting the Relevance of Reasons
7.6 Building Complex Arguments Out of Simple Ones
7.7 Arguments and Your Ethos
Quick Tip: Designing Arguments Not for Yourself but for Your
Readers: Two Common Pitfalls
8 Claims
8.1 What Kind of Claim?
8.2 Evaluating Your Claim
Quick Tip: Qualifying Claims to Enhance Your Credibility
9 Reasons and Evidence
9.1 Using Reasons to Plan Your Argument
9.2 The Slippery Distinction between Reasons and Evidence
9.3 Evidence vs. Reports of Evidence
9.4 Select the Right Form for Reporting Evidence
9.5 Reliable Evidence
Quick Tip: Showing the Relevance of Evidence
10 Acknowledgments and Responses
10.1 Questioning Your Argument
10.2 Finding Alternatives to Your Argument
10.3 Deciding What to Acknowledge
10.4 Responses as Subordinate Arguments
Quick Tip: The Vocabulary of Acknowledgment and Response
11 Warrants
11.1 How Warrants Work
11.2 What Warrants Look Like
11.3 Knowing When to State a Warrant
11.4 Testing Your Warrants
Quick Tip: Some Strategies for Challenging Warrants
IV PREPARING TO DRAFT, DRAFTING, AND REVISING
PROLOGUE: PLANNING AGAIN
Quick Tip: Outlining
12 Planning and Drafting
12.1 Preliminaries to Drafting
12.2 Planning: Four Traps to Avoid
12.3 A Plan for Drafting
12.4 The Pitfall to Avoid at All Costs: Plagiarism
12.5 The Next Step
Quick Tip: Using Quotation and Paraphrase
13 Revising Your Organization and Argument
13.1 Thinking Like a Reader
13.2 Analyzing and Revising Your Overall Organization
13.3 Revising Your Argument
13.4 The Last Step
Quick Tip: Titles and Abstracts
14 Introductions and Conclusions
14.1 The Three Elements of an Introduction
14.2 Establish Common Ground
14.3 State Your Problem
14.4 State Your Response
14.5 Fast or Slow?
14.6 Organizing the Whole Introduction
14.7 Conclusions
Quick Tip: Opening and Closing Words
15 Communicating Evidence Visually
15.1 Visual or Verbal?
15.2 Tables vs. Figures
15.3 Constructing Tables
15.4 Constructing Figures
15.5 Visual Communication and Ethics
15.6 Using Graphics as an Aid to Thinking
16 Revising Style: Telling Your Story Clearly
16.1 Judging Style
16.2 A First Principle: Stories and Grammar
16.3 A Second Principle: Old Before New
16.4 Choosing between Active and Passive
16.5 A Final Principle: Complexity Last
16.6 Spit and Polish
Quick Tip: The Quickest Revision
V SOME LAST CONSIDERATIONS

The Ethics of Research
A Postscript for Teachers
An Appendix on Finding Sources
General Sources
Special Sources
A Note on Some of Our Sources
Index



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Research Methodology, Technical writing