Table of contents for The student writer : editor and critic / Barbara Fine Clouse.


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Part 1		Strategies for Reading and Writing

Chapter 1	The Connection between Reading and Writing
	Reading Analytically
	
Step One: Preview the Material
Step Two: Read Thoughtfully
Determine the Author’s Thesis
Consider the Intended Audience and Purpose
Distinguish between Facts and Opinions
Make Inferences
Make Connections
Assess the Quality of Material
Draw Conclusions
Marking the Text
Step Three: Review and Write for Retention
A Sample Marked Text John Holt “School Is Bad for Children” Writing in Response to Reading
Writing a Summary
Evaluating an Author’s Ideas
Sharing Personal Reactions and Associations Essays for Reading and Response Amy Tan “Democracy” Albert Rosenfeld “Animal Rights versus Human Health Analyzing Visual Content
Determine the Image’s Topic
Identify the Audience and Purpose
Identify and Evaluate the Components of the Image
Notice Inference
Consider the Text Accompanies the Image
Assess the Quality of the Image Chapter 2 Getting Started The Writing Process Six Areas of the Writing Process Choosing a Writing Topic
Pay Attention to the World around You
Freewrite
Fill in the Blanks Narrow a Broad Topic
Freewrite
Write a List
Consider the Patterns of Development
Map Your Broad Topic Anthony’s Essay in Progress: Discovering a Writing Topic Establishing Your Purpose Identifying and Assessing Your Audience Anthony’s Essay in Progress: Establishing Purpose and Identifying and Assessing Audience Discovering Ideas to Develop Your Topic
Freewrite
Write a List
Answer Questions
Write a Letter
Investigate Sources
Keep a Journal Computer Tips for Prewriting Process Guidelines: Breaking Through Writer’s Block Developing a Preliminary Thesis
The Qualities of an Effective Thesis Process Guidelines: How to Draft a Preliminary Thesis Process Guidelines: The Sequence of Your Writing Process Anthony’s Essay in Progress: Discovering Ideas and Developing a Preliminary Thesis Writing Assignment Chapter 3 Organizing and Drafting Process Guidelines: Evaluating Your Ideas Ordering Ideas
Chronological Order
Spatial Order
Progressive Order
Outlining
The Formal Outline
Outline Cards
The Outline Worksheet
The Outline Tree
The Scratch Outline Process Guidelines: Outlining Anthony’s Essay in Progress: Outlining Writing the First Draft
Structuring Your Essay Aaron Palumbo “Portrait of an Achiever”
The Introduction Process Guidelines: Drafting Introductions
Body Paragraphs
Placement of the Topic Sentence
Effective Supporting Details
When to Begin a New Paragraph Process Guidelines: Drafting Body Paragraphs
The Conclusion
Drafting a Title Computer Tips for Drafting Anthony’s Essay in Progress: The First Draft Writing Assignment Chapter 4 Revising for Content and Organization Process Guidelines: Moving from Writer-Based to Reader-Based Activity Think like a Critic; Work like an Editor: Revising Content Think like a Critic; Work like an Editor: Revising Organization
Achieving Coherence
Use Transitions to Achieve Coherence
Use Repetition to Achieve Coherence
Use Transitions and Repetition to Achieve Coherence between Paragraphs Working Collaboratively: Revising with the Help of Reader Response Process Guidelines: Giving and Receiving Reader Response Process Guidelines: Breaking through Writer’s Block Computer Tips for Revising Anthony’s Essay in Progress: Revising the First Draft Chapter 5 Revising for Effective Expression Think like a Critic; Work like an Editor: Revising Sentences
Use Active Voice
Use Coordination and Subordination
Achieve Sentence Variety
Use Parallel Structure Think like a Critic; Work like an Editor: Revising Diction
Use an Appropriate Level of Diction
Use Words with an Appropriate Connotation
Avoid Colloquial Language
Use Specific Diction
Use Simple Diction
Use Gender-Neutral, Inoffensive Language
Eliminate Wordiness
Avoid Cliche;s Process Guidelines: Revising Sentences and Words Computer Tips for Revising Sentences and Words Anthony’s Essay in Progress: The Final Draft Part 2 Patterns of Development Chapter 6 Description Why Is Description Important?
Description across the Disciplines and Beyond Combining Description with Other Patterns Selecting Detail
Focus Your Description with a Dominant Impression
Determine Your Need for Objective and Subjective Description
Use Concrete Sensory Detail
Use Similes, Metaphors, and Personification
Consider Your Purpose and Audience Be a Responsible Writer Organizing Description Visualizing a Descriptive Essay Learning from Other Writers: Student Essays Karen Greene “A Child’s Room” * Jerry Silberman “My First Flight” Think Like a Critic; Work Like an Editor: The Student Writer at Work Learning from Other Writers: Professional Essays James Tuite “The Sounds of the City” Ernesto Galarza “A Mexican House” Combining Patterns: * Suzanne Berne “Where Nothing Says Everything” Organization Note: Short Paragraphs Description in a Visual Image Suggestions for Writing Process Guidelines for Writing Description Chapter 7 Narration Why Is Narration Important?
Narration across the Disciplines and Beyond Combining Narration with Other Patterns Selecting Detail
Answer the Journalist’s Questions
Write Dialogue
Describe a Person, Place, or Scene
Tell Your Story for a Reason
Consider Your Purpose and Audience Be a Responsible Writer Organizing Narration Visualizing a Narrative Essay Learning from Other Writers: Student Essays Donald J. Monaco “The Ball Game” * Brian DeWolf “The Great Buffalo Hunt” Think Like a Critic; Work Like an Editor: The Student Writer at Work Learning from Other Writers: Professional Essays Paul Hemphill “The Girl in Gift Wrap” Maya Angelou “The Boys” Combining Patterns: D. L. Birchfield, “Roads to Nowhere” Punctuation Note: Parentheses Narration in a Visual Image Suggestions for Writing Process Guidelines for Writing Narration Chapter 8 Exemplification Why Is Exemplification Important?
Exemplification across the Disciplines and Beyond Combining Exemplification with Other Patterns Selecting Detail
Consider Examples from a Variety of Sources
Use Description and Narration as Examples
Use Hypothetical Examples
Use the Right Number of Examples
Consider Your Purpose and Audience Be a Responsible Writer Organizing Exemplification Visualizing an Exemplification Essay Learning from Other Writers: Student Essays * Delilah Rawlins “Ocean of Tears” * Ken Hamner “Let’s Just Ban Everything”
Student Essay with Research Student Essay with Research: * Thomas Baird “Media Stereotyping of Muslims as Terrorists” Think Like a Critic; Work Like an Editor: The Student Writer at Work Learning from Other Writers: Professional Essays Harold Krents “Darkness at Noon” * Dawn Turner Trice “Shoddy Service” Combining Patterns: Judith Otis Cofer “The Myth of the Latin Woman: I Just Met a Girl Named Maria” Style Note: Sarcasm Exemplification in a Visual Image Suggestions for Writing Process Guidelines for Writing Exemplification Chapter 9 Process Analysis Why Is Process Analysis Important?
Process Analysis across the Disciplines and Beyond Combining Process Analysis with Other Patterns Selecting Detail
Include All the Important Steps
Explain How a Step is Performed
Explain the Significance of a Step or Why It Is Performed
Explain Trouble Spots and What Not to Do
Mention Necessary Items and Define Unfamiliar Terms
Include Examples and Description
Use Visuals
Consider Your Purpose and Audience Be a Responsible Writer Organizing a Process Analysis Visualizing a Process Analysis Essay Learning from Other Writers: Student Essays Lucas Smith “Horse Sense” * Anonymous “A Visit to Candyland” Think Like a Critic; Work Like an Editor: The Student Writer at Work Learning from Other Writers: Professional Essays Kirby W. Stanat “How to Take a Job Interview” * Diane Ackerman “Why Leaves Turn Color in the Fall” Combining Patterns: * Eric L. Wee “Annie Smith Swept Here” Development Note: Hypothetical Situations Process Analysis in a Visual Image Suggestions for Writing Process Guidelines for Writing Process Analysis Chapter 10 Comparison-Contrast Why Is Comparison-Contrast Important?
Comparison-Contrast across the Disciplines and Beyond Combining Comparison-Contrast with Other Patterns Selecting Detail
Include Enough Points of Comparison and Contrast
Draw on Other Patterns to Explain Points of Comparison and Contrast
Maintain Balance between the Points Discussed
Consider Your Audience and Purpose Be a Responsible Writer Organizing Comparison-Contrast Visualizing a Comparison-Contrast Essay Learning from Other Writers: Student Essays Gus Spirtos “The Human and the Superhuman: Two Very Different Heroes” Maria Scarsella “Like Mother like Daughter” Think Like a Critic; Work Like an Editor: The Student Writer at Work Learning from Other Writers: Professional Essays Rachel Carson “A Fable for Tomorrow” * Suzanne Britt “That Lean and Hungry Look” Combining Patterns: * Patria P. Ramos “What It Means to Be a Filipino” Development Note: Dialogue Comparison-Contrast in a Visual Image Suggestions for Writing Process Guidelines for Writing Comparison-Contrast Chapter 11 Cause-and-Effect Analysis Why Is Cause-and-Effect Analysis Important?
Cause-and-Effect Analysis across the Disciplines and Beyond Combining Cause-and-Effect Analysis with Other Patterns Selecting Detail
Report Multiple Causes and Effects
Identify Underlying Causes and Effects
Prove That Something Is a Cause or Effect
Identify Immediate and Remote Causes
Reproduce Causal Chains
Explain Why Something Is or Is Not a Cause or an Effect
Consider Your Audience and Purpose Be a Responsible Writer Organizing Cause-and-Effect Analysis Visualizing a Cause-and-Effect Analysis Learning from Other Writers: Student Essays Brigitt Ryan “Gender-Specific Cigarette Advertising” John Selzer “Athletes on Drugs: It’s Not So Hard to Understand” Think Like a Critic; Work Like an Editor: The Student Writer at Work Learning from Other Writers: Professional Essays Anne Roiphe “Why Marriages Fail” * Suzanne Sievert “It’s Not Just How We Play That Matters” Combining Patterns: * David France with Franco Ordonez “$75 Million of Stuff” Diction Note: Specific Diction Cause-and-Effect Analysis in a Visual Image Suggestions for Writing Process Guidelines for Writing Cause-and-Effect Analysis Chapter 12 Definition Why Is Definition Important?
Definition across the Disciplines and Beyond Combining Definition with Other Patterns Selecting Detail
Write a Stipulative Definition
Draw on Other Patterns of Development
Compare or Contrast the Term with Related Words
Explain What Your Term Is Not
Consider Your Audience and Purpose Be a Responsible Writer Organizing Definition Visualizing a Definition Essay Learning from Other Writers: Student Essays Maria Vilar “Parenthood: Don’t Count on Sleeping until They Move Out” Melissa Greco “What Is Writer’s Block” Think Like a Critic; Work Like an Editor: The Student Writer at Work Learning from Other Writers: Professional Essays Laurie Lee “Appetite” * Margo Kaufman “My Way!” Combining Patterns: * Dave Barry “The Pajama Game” Development Note: Questions Definition in a Visual Image Suggestions for Writing Process Guidelines for Writing Definition Chapter 13 Classification and Division Why Are Classification and Division Important?
Definition across the Disciplines and Beyond Combining Classification and Division with Other Patterns Selecting Detail
Have a Principle of Classification or Division
Be Sure All Categories or Components Conform to Your Principle of Classification or Division
Use Mutually Exclusive Categories
Explain Each Category or Component
Consider Your Audience and Purpose Be a Responsible Writer Organizing Classification and Division Visualizing a Classification and Division Essay Learning from Other Writers: Student Essays Anita Selfe “Grocery Shoppers” Ray Harkleroad “Horror Movies” Think Like a Critic; Work Like an Editor: The Student Writer at Work Learning from Other Writers: Professional Essays Russell Baker “The Plot Against People” Judith Viorst “The Truth about Lying” * David Bodanis “What’s in Your Toothpaste?" Combining Patterns: Martin Luther King, Jr. “The Ways of Meeting Oppression” Punctuation Note: The Dash Division in a Visual Image Suggestions for Writing Process Guidelines for Writing Classification and Division Part Three Using the Patterns of Development Chapter 14 Argumentation Why Is Argumentation Important?
Argumentation across the Disciplines and Beyond Finding an Issue and Establishing Your Claim
Consider Your Audience and Purpose Kinds of Support
Sources of Reasons and Evidence
Inductive and Deductive Reasoning
Avoiding Logical Fallacies
Emotional Appeals
Ethical Appeals: Raising and Countering Objections Creating Goodwill
Using the Patterns of Development Be a Responsible Writer Organizing an Argument Essay Visualizing an Argument Essay Learning from Other Writers: Student Essays Michael Weiss “It’s Just Too Easy” LaDonna Ireland “The Old Ball Game” Student Essay with Research: * Mary E. Fischer “Should Obscene Art Be Funded by the Government?” Think Like a Critic; Work Like an Editor: The Student Writer at Work Learning from Other Writers: Professional Essays Ronnie Gunnerson “Parents Also Have Rights” Wayne M. Joseph “Why I Dread Black History Month” * Charles R. Eisendrath “So Shoot Me, I’m a Hunter” Style Note: Emphasis Argumentation in a Visual Image Suggestions for Writing Process Guidelines for Writing Argumentation Chapter 15 Writing with Sources When to Research The Research Process Outline Write Your First Draft Document Source Material
Using MLA Documentation
Using APA Documentation Learning from Other Writers: A Student Research Paper Julie Cooper, “Genetically Modified Food: Watching What We Eat” Chapter 16 Assembling a Writing Portfolio The Purposes of a Writing Portfolio What to Include in a Self-Reflection Essay Chapter 17 Writing about Literature How to Write about Literature Learning from Other Writers: A Student Essay * Martin Espada “Coca Cola and Coca Frio” * Michael Hambuchen “Symbol and Theme in ‘Coca Cola and Coca Frio’" * Saki (H. H. Munro) “The Open Window” * John Heaviside “A Gathering of Deafs” Part Four. A Guide to Frequently Occurring Errors Chapter 18 Word Choice Troublesome Phrases Phrasings That Announce Your Intent Double Negatives Frequently Confused Words Chapter 19 Sentence Fragments Finding Sentence Fragments Correcting Sentence Fragments ESL Note: The Past Participle and Passive Voice Chapter 20 Run-On Sentences and Comma Splices Finding Run-on Sentences and Comma Splices Correcting Run-on Sentences and Comma Splices ESL Note: Commas and Main Clauses Chapter 21 Verbs Verb Forms: Regular and Irregular Verbs ESL Note: Incorrect Use of –d and –ed Endings Subject-Verb Agreement ESL Note: Singular Verbs and Noncount Nouns Tense Shifts Voice Shifts Chapter 22 Pronouns Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement Pronoun Reference Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns Pronoun Case ESL Note: Pronoun Reference and Who, Whom, Which, or That Chapter 23 Modifiers Adjectives and Adverbs ESL Note: A, An, and The Dangling Modifiers Misplaced Modifiers Chapter 24 Punctuation The Comma The Semicolon The Colon The Dash Parentheses The Apostrophe ESL Note: Its and It’s Quotation Marks The Ellipsis Mark Brackets The Hyphen Chapter 25 Mechanics Capitalization ESL Note: Capitalization Underlining and Italics Abbreviations and Numbers Spelling ESL Note: Spelling Appendix: The Parts of Speech


Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: English language Rhetoric, Report writing, Criticism, Editing