Table of contents for Women in American society : an introduction to women's studies / Virginia Sapiro.


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Preface  xix
Scope and Approach  xx
The United States in Comparative and International Perspective xx
Women’s Studies from a Social Science Perspective xxi
Methodology and the Process of Research and Interpretation xxi
Historical Understanding xxii
An Interdisciplinary Approach xxii
Diversity among Women xxiii What Lies Ahead? xxiii
Organization: General Approach xxiii
Organization: The Flow xxiv
Revisions xxvi
Study Aids xxvii Acknowledgments xxvii PART ONE: DEVELOPING FRAMEWORKS FOR THE STUDY OF GENDER AND SOCIETY Reflect Before You Read 2 1. Introducing Women’s Studies 3 Representing Women 3 Knowledge and the Representation of Women 6 Women’s Studies as a Field of Study 7 Understanding Gender and Gender Differences 10 When and Why Are Gender Differences Interesting? 11 What Is the Connection between Difference and Inequality 11 When Is a Difference Really a Difference? 15 Social Science Methods of Studying Women and Gender 18 Social Science as Systematic Observation 18 Methods Women’s Studies Researchers Use 19
Ethnography 19
Experiments 21
Survey Research 22
Depth Interviewing 23
Event or Institutional Case Studies 24
Archival Research 25
Content Analysis 25
Meta-Analysis 25 Summary 26 Conclusion 27 Notes 27 For Further Reading 28 Study Questions 29 2. Societal-Level Approaches to Understanding Women’s Lives 30 U.S. Women in Global Perspective 31 Literacy and Education 31 Marriage and Reproduction 35 Work and Economic Life 41 Women and the State 44
Women and Political Power 44 Policies Affecting Women 46 Cross-National Comparative Perspectives: Conclusions 49 Explaining Women’s Situation at the Societal Level: Six Theoretical Approaches 50 The Eternal Feminine: Traditional Theological Perspectives 51 Natural Woman and Man: From Traditional Science to Complex Systems 52
The Genetic Basis of Sex 53
The Role of Hormones 54
The Structure of the Brain 55
From Sex to Gender 56
Social Structures of Gender: Sex/Gender Systems 57 The Inevitable Progress of Enlightenment and Modernization 58
Foundations of Liberalism 58
Liberalism and Women 60 Natural History and Evolution 62
Foundations of Evolutionary Theory 62
Early Feminist Critiques 63
Current Views of Evolution and Sexual Differentiation 64 More Natural History: Economic and Historical-Materialist Theories 65
Marxist Foundations 65
Marxism and Women 66
Contemporary Economic and Materialist Theories 67 Power Struggles: Dominance and Self-Determination 69
Freud and the War between the Sexes 69
Societal Stress and Cultural Strain 70
Anti-Feminist Sex-War Theory 72
Evaluating Power-Struggle Theories 73 Toward Understanding Development and Change in Sex/ Gender Systems 73 Notes 74 For Further Reading 74 Study Questions 75 3. Individual-Level Approaches to Understanding Women’s Lives 77 What Difference Does a Person’s Gender Make? 78 Masculinity, Femininity, and Character 79 Cognitive Traits, Personality, Values, and Interaction Styles 82
Cognitive Traits and Skills 82
Personality 84
Attitudes and Values 85
Social Interaction and Communication Styles 86
Summary of Psychological Differences 87 Stereotypes: The Importance of Person Perception 87 Explaining Women’s Situation at the Individual Level: Five Approaches 88 The Biological Basis of Female and Male 89 Psychoanalytical Theory: The Creation of Femininity and Masculinity 90
Sex Similarity 90
The Development of Difference 91
Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective 93 Cognitive-Developmental Theories 96
Becoming Girls and Boy 97
Gender and Moral Development 98
Evaluating Cognitive-Developmental Theory 100 Learning Theories 100
The Development of Difference 100
Gender Learning after Childhood 102
The Complexity of Learning 103
A Summary of Learning Theories 103 Synthesizing Cognition and Learning: Gender-Schema Theory 104 Institutional Theories and Discrimination 106 Individual Development and Social Change 109 Notes 110 For Further Reading 110 Study Questions 110 4. Commonality and Difference among Women 112 Why Not Just Gender? 113 Recognizing Difference 113 The Differential Impact of Sex/Gender Systems 115 The View from the Dominant System 116 The View from Different Groups of Women 120 Untangling Oppressions 121 The Parallel Model 122 The Distinct-Components Model 122 The Complex Model 124 Hierarchies of Oppression 124 Exemplifying Complexity: Gender, Race, Sexuality, and Violence 125 Sketches in Differences 128 Age 128 Class 130 Race and Ethnicity 131 Geography and Culture 133 Conclusion: Learning from Difference 134 Notes 135 For Further Reading 136 Study Questions 137 PART TWO: GENDER-DEFINING INSTITUTIONS Reflect Before You Read 139 5. Education: Learning to Be Male and Female 141 Historical Perspectives on Women’s Education 141 Early Efforts 141 Expanding Access 143 Increasing Leadership Roles 144 Achieving Higher Education 148 Women’s Education Today 149 How Much Education? 150 What Did You Learn in School Today? 154 Segregation and Schooling 160 Women as Educators 163 Education and the Future 167 The Question of Choice 167 Education for What? 168 Education for and about Women 168 Notes 170 For Further Reading 170 Study Questions 171 6. Normal Gender: Health, Fitness, and Beauty 172 Traditional Gender-Based Norms in Defining Women’s Health 174 Anatomy and Health 174
Uterus 174
Ovaries 175
Clitoris 175
Breasts 176
Summary: More Than the Sum of the Parts 178 Reproductive Health 179
Menstruation 179
Pregnancy and Childbirth 181 Gender Norms and the Organization of Health Care Research and Practice 184 The American Health Care System 184 Sexism in Health Care 185 Clinical Trials 187 Health and the New Sex-Based Biology 188 Health in Women’s Everyday Life 189 Healthy Families? 190 Work and Health 191
Employment, the Double Burden, and Health 191
Protection against Dangerous Occupations 193
Health Implications of Workplace Discrimination and Harassment 194 Beauty, Fitness, and Health 195
The Ideal Size and Shape: Hourglass, California Girl, or Heroin Chic? 195
Weight 197
Exercise 201
Skin Color 202
Summary: What’s Wrong with Beauty? 203 Women’s Roles in Shaping Health Care 204 Healers, Doctors, and Other Health Care Professionals 205 Health Care Activists 208 Mothers and Daughters as Health Care Providers 210 The Influence of Women as Health Care Consumers 211 Broadening the Concept of Health 212 Notes 213 For Further Reading 214 Study Questions 215 7. Women and Religion 216 Some Notes on Religion in American Society 217 Religious Teachings about Women and Gender 218 God Talk: Is It Male? 219 Separate and Unequal Spheres 220 Morality, Sexuality, and Gender 225 Feminist Alternatives and the Women’s Spirituality Movement 228 Women’s Religious Activities and Influences 230 Everyday Life as Religious Activity 231 Women’s Religious Service Outside the Home 233 Women as Religious Authorities and Leaders 235 Religion and Society 239 Notes 241 For Further Reading 242 Study Questions 243 8. Gender and the Institutional Media of Communication 244 The Mass Media: Women in the News 245 Print Media 245
Early History 245
The 20th Century 248 Electronic Media 251
Radio 251
Television 252
The Internet 255 The Mass Media: Images and Impact 256 The Production of Gender in the Mass Media 256
Television 256
Magazines 260
Newspapers 263
Representations of Women in the Media: Change 266 The Impact of the Mass Media 267 The Commercial Media 268 History of Gender and Advertising 268 The Commercial Media Today: Images and Impact 268 The Cultural and Artistic Media 272 Women and the Production of Art 272 Gender and Sexuality as Subjects of Art 277 Media of Change? 281 Notes 282 For Further Reading 283 Study Questions 284 9. Law and Policy, Government, and the State 285 Gender Norms in Government, Law, and Public Policy 285 Protection of Rights 286
Founding Ideas 287
Early Judicial Interpretations 288
Legislative Changes in Women’s Rights, 1840–1960 289
The Late Twentieth Century 290 Fulfillment of Obligations 291
Taxation 291
Jury Duty 291
Military Service 292
Summary: Citizens’ Rights and Obligations 298 Women’s Policy Issues 298 Women, Crime, and Justice 301 Gender and Criminal Victimization 302 Women as Criminals 304
Prostitution 307
Homicide and Murder 308
Women in the Criminal Justice System 309 Women’s Political Participation and Influence 310 Gender in Electoral Politics 310
Mass Electoral Participation 310
Women as Candidates for Office 311
Gender, Public Opinion, and Partisanship 313 Nonelectoral Citizen Politics 315 International Politics and Policy 316 Women, Politics, and Democracy 318 Notes 318 For Further Reading 320 Study Questions 320 PART THREE: CHOICE AND CONTROL IN PERSONAL LIFE, THE FAMILY, AND WORK Reflect Before You Read 323 10. Gender, Communication, and Self-Expression 324 Some General Observations on Language and Communication 324 Referring to Women, Men, and People 325 Gender-Specific Terms 326 Gender-Neutral Terms 332 Autonomy and Control in Communication 333 Male and Female Language 333 The Right-of-Way: Gender and Status 336
Right-of-Way in Space 337
Right-of-Way in Conversation 341
The Right-of-Way: Gender and Power 342 Strategies of Power and Influence 345 Future Options 349 Notes 352 For Further Reading 352 Study Questions 353 11. Personal and Sexual Relationships in Adulthood 354 Gender and Personal Relationships 355 Of Hunting Bands and Mothers 355 Friendship and Personal Networks 356 Sexuality and Sexual Relationships 358 Defining Sexual Relationships 358 Sexual Identity 360 Sexual Orientation 362
Gender and Sexual Orientation 362
Defining Sexual Orientation and Its Sources 364
Homophobia and Heterosexual Privilege 368 Sexuality, Love, and Power 370 Marriage: Family, Property, and State 374 The Marriage Contract 374 Names and Places 375 Rights and Obligations 376 Property 377 The State’s View of Marriage 378 Marriage, Gender, and Day-to-Day Life 379 Divorce 380 The Law on “Living in Sin” 381 Politics of Personal Life 382 Notes 383 For Further Reading 383 Study Questions 384 12. Consenting Adults? Gender-based Violence and Coercion 385 What Are Gender-Based Violence and Coercion? 388 Intimate Partner Violence 389 The Prevalence and Causes of Intimate Partner Violence 389 Intervention and Response: The Health Care and Justice Systems 392 A Sexual Right-of-Way 394 Sexual Harassment 396 Public Harassment 397 Sexual Harassment and the Law 398 Causes and Dynamics of Harassment 400 Rape and Sexual Assault 401 Patterns of Sexual Assault 402 Sexual Assault and the Justice System 406 Conclusions: Gender-based Violence against Women 408 Notes 409 For Further Reading 409 Study Questions 410 13. Reproduction, Parenthood, and Child Care 412 To Be or Not to Be a Parent 414 Reproduction and Choice 415 Contraception 419 Abortion: Legal History 423
Early History: Increasing Restriction 424
The Granting of Rights: Roe v. Wade 424 Abortion Politics and the Current Situation 428 Parenthood 432 Becoming Mothers and Fathers 432 Mothering and Fathering 435 Single and Separated Parents 438
When a Marriage Breaks Up 438
Single Parenthood 440 A Case Study of African American Families 441 Parents without Children 445 Beyond the Family: Who Cares for Children? 446 Notes 450 For Further Reading 450 Study Questions 451 14. Work, Employment, and the Economics of Gender 453 Making a Living versus Making a Home: Defining Differences 455 The Rise and Fall of Homemaking 455 The Political Economy of Homemaking 458
Problems of Definition: Housework as Work 459
Economic Functions of Homemaking 460 Making a Living versus Making a Home: Choices 464 Women’s Employment: Historical and Aggregate Views 465 Women’s Work through Their Life Course 469
Childhood and Adolescence 469
Early and Middle Adulthood 470
Later Adulthood 476 Making a Living versus Making a Home: Conclusion 476 Gender Divisions of Labor in Employment 477 What Is the Difference between Women’s and Men’s Work? Horizontal Segregation 477 What Is the Difference between Women’s and Men’s Work? Vertical Segregation 483 Employment Discrimination: Patterns and Remedies 485 Income, Worth, and Poverty 491 Women’s Pay 491 Other Means of Support: Social Welfare 494 Organization of Women in the Workforce 496 Conclusion: Women’s Work 497 Notes 498 For Further Reading 499 Study Questions 499 PART FOUR: FEMINISM AND THE GLOBAL CONTEXT Reflect Before You Read 501 15. Feminism and the Future 502 The Development of Feminism and Women’s Movements in the United States 504 Social-Movement Theory 504 Before the Civil War 507 Fifty Years and More: From Civil War to Suffrage 511 The Quiet Time: From Suffrage to Presidential Commissions 518 The Rebirth of Feminism: Emma Said It in 1910/ Now We’re Going to Say It Again 521 Feminism and the Women’s Movement Today 525 Current Issues 525 Toward a Multicultural and Global Feminism 527
Multicultural Feminism 527
Global Feminism 530 Opponents to Feminism 532 Feminism and the Future 535 Notes 536 For Further Reading 536 Study Questions 538 / References R-1 Credits C-1 Name Index N-1 Subject Index S-1


Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Women United States, Women's studies United States