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Chapter 1: DRINKING WATER QUALITY STANDARDS, REGULATIONS, AND GOALS. Early Development of Drinking Water Standards. Early History of U.S. Federal Drinking Water Standards. The Safe Drinking Water Act; Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments. 1988 Lead Contamination Control Act. 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments. Development of National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. International Drinking Water Standards. Trends for the Future. Chapter 2: HEALTH AND AESTHETIC ASPECTS OF WATER QUALITY. Waterborne Disease Outbreaks. Pathogenic Organisms. Indicators and Indicator Organisms. The Health Effects of Chemicals. Inorganic Constituents. Organic Constituents. Disinfectants and Disinfection By-Products. Radionuclides. Chapter 3: GUIDE TO SELECTION OF WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES. Water Supply Approaches. Factors Influencing Process Selection. Evaluating Process Options. Examples of Treatment Process Selection. Chapter 4: SOURCE WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT. GROUNDWATER. Groundwater Source Quality: Relationship with Surface Water and Regulation. General Overview of Groundwater Sources and Impacts on Their Quality. Patterns of Private and Public Groundwater Source Uses: Quality Management Issues. SURFACE WATER. Quality Management of Surface Water Sources. Chapter 5: AIR STRIPPING AND AERATION. Theory of Gas Transfer. Unit Operations. Diffused or Bubble Aeration. Surface Aeration. Spray Aerators. Chapter 6: COAGULATION AND FLOCCULATION. Definitions. Contaminants. Stability of Particle Suspensions. Coagulants. The Flocculation Process. Chapter 7: SEDIMENTATION AND FLOTATION. History of Sedimentation. Sedimentation Theory. Operational and Design Considerations for Sedimentation. Dissolved-Air Flotation. Theory of Dissolved-Air Flotation. Operational and Design Considerations for Flotation. Applications. Nomenclature. Chapter 8. GRANULAR BED AND PRECOAT FILTRATION. An Overview of Potable Water Filtration. Filter Media; Hydraulics of Flow Through Porous Media; Rapid Granular Bed Filtration. Theory of Rapid Filtration and Modeling. Rapid Filter Performance. Direct Filtration. Flow Control in Filtration. Backwashing of Rapid Filters. Problems in Rapid Filters. Pressure Granular Bed Filters. Slow Sand Filters. Precoat Filtration. Other Filters. Emerging Technology. Waste Disposal. Chapter 9: ION EXCHANGE AND INORGANIC ADSORPTION. Introduction and Theory of Ion Exchange. Ion Exchange Materials and Reactions. Ion Exchange Equilibrium. Ion Exchange and Adsorption Kinetics. Column Processes and Calculations. Design Considerations. Cocurrent Versus Countercurrent Regeneration. Applications of Ion Exchange and Adsorption. Barium Removal by Ion Exchange. Radium Removal by Ion Exchange. Nitrate Removal by Ion Exchange. Fluoride Removal by Activated Alumina. Arsenic Removal by Resins and Alumina. Chromate Removal by Anion Exchange. Color and Organics Removal by Resins. Uranium Removal by Anion Exchange. Perchlorate Removal by Anion Exchange. Waste Disposal. Chapter 10: CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION. Fundamentals of Chemical Precipitation. Water Softening by Chemical Precipitation. Removal of Nominal Organic Material. Removal of Other Contaminants by Precipitation. Chapter 11: MEMBRANES. Classifications and Configurations of Membrane Processes. Membrane Properties and Rejection Characteristics. Mass Transport and Separation. Process Design Criteria. Waste Disposal. Chapter 12. CHEMICAL OXIDATION. Principles of Oxidation. Oxidants Used in Water Treatment. Applications of Oxidation Processes. Formation of Disinfection (and Oxidation) By-Products. Chapter 13: ADSORPTION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. Adsorption Theory. GAC Adsorption Systems. Performance of GAC Systems. GAC Performance Estimation. PAC Adsorption Systems. PAC Performance. Thermal Reactivation of GAC; Adsorption of Organic Matter on Resins. Chapter 14: DISINFECTION. History of Disinfection. Disinfectants and Theory of Disinfection. Disinfectant Demand Reactions. Assessment of Microbial Quality (Indicators). Pathogens of Concern. Disinfection Kinetics. The CT Approach in Regulation. UV Processes. Mode of Action of Disinfectants. Disinfectant Residuals for Posttreatment Protection. Application of Technologies. Use of Multiple Disinfectants. Relative Comparisons. Diagnostics and Troubleshooting. Chapter 15: WATER FLUORIDATION. History. Recent Studies. Present Status of Fluoridation. Theory. Operational and Design Consideration. Application. Chapter 16: WATER TREATMENT PLANT RESIDUALS MANAGEMENT. Quantity of Solid/Liquid Residuals Generated. Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Solid/Liquid Residuals. Thickening Solid/Liquid Residuals. Nonmechanical Dewatering of Solid/Liquid Residuals. Mechanical Dewatering of Solid/Liquid Residuals. Recycle. Membrane and Ion Exchange Residuals. Ultimate Disposal and Utilization of Solids. Chapter 17: INTERNAL CORROSION AND DEPOSITION CONTROL. Corrosion, Passivation, and Immunity. Types of Corrosion. Physical Factors Affecting Corrosion and Metals Release. Chemical Factors Affecting Corrosion. Corrosion of Specific Materials. Direct Methods for the Assessment of Corrosion. Indirect Methods for the Assessment of Corrosion. Corrosion Control Alternatives. Acknowledgments. Chapter 18: MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY CONTROL IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS. General Considerations for Contamination Prevention. Engineering Considerations for Contamination Prevention. Factors Contributing to Microbial Quality Deterioration. Microbial Quality of Distributed Water. Microbial Colonization Factors. Monitoring Factors.