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* - indicates material that is new to this edition PART 1, Writing Situations and Getting Started: Early Stages of the Writing Process CHAPTER 1, WRITING IN CONTEXT Why Learn to Write Well? What Is the Rhetorical Situation? What Is The Writing Process? A Word of Encouragement CHAPTER 2, DIFFERENT VOICES FOR DIFFERENT OCCASIONS AND AUDIENCES The Writer’s Voice How Casual Conversation Differs from Focused Writing Standard and Nonstandard Usage Where Can I Find Keys to Usage Labels and Abbreviations?What If Dictionaries Disagree? Three Vocabularies Three Levels of Formality Three Common Concerns that Affect Voice Three Crucial Questions for Achieving an Appropriate Voice CHAPTER 3, PREWRITING: DISCOVERING IDEAS Overcoming Anxiety Prewriting: Stage One of the Writing Process Combining Invention Techniques Gathering Information CHAPTER 4, DRAFTING: EXPLORING IDEAS Drafting: Stage 2 of the Writing Process Focusing an Exploratory Draft Drafting an Introduction Seven Basic Ways to Organize a Draft Writing an Effective Conclusion Drafting on a Computer A Note of Reassurance and a Brief Review PART 2, A Revision Workshop: Later Stages of the Writing Process CHAPTER 5, REVISING, EDITING, AND PROOFREADING: AN OVERVIEW How Do You Become Your Own Editor? Revision: Stage 3 of the Writing Process Five Major Steps of Revision Refocusing a Draft Clarifying the Draft Editing and Proofreading: Stage 4 of the Writing Process Major Tasks in Editing and Proofreading Proofreading Effectively Peer Review: Helping to Improve Each Others’ Writing Hang in There! CHAPTER 6, ANALYTICAL THINKING AND REVISION Why Is Accuracy Important?How Can Facts Be Determined?Inferences Are UnprovenValue Judgments and Point of ViewTone of Voice Four Ways Misinformation ArisesWriting ResponsiblyRevising for AccuracyCHAPTER 7, REVISING PARAGRAPHSElements of an Effective ParagraphQualities of Effective ParagraphsPrewriting and Drafting ParagraphsOrganizing and Developing ParagraphsCHAPTER 8, EDITING SENTENCESEffective Use of VerbsSentence VarietyParallelism: A Balancing ActChopping out DeadwoodSentence StyleCHAPTER 9, IMPROVING WORD CHOICEWord Meanings: Denotation and ConnotationNegative and Positive WordsInclusive LanguageTechnical JargonTrite Language and Cliche;sMaking the Message Clear and AppropriateScholarly or Simple Words?PART 3, Options for OrganizationCHAPTER 10, NARRATION: RECOUNTING EVENTSPurpose of NarrationElements of NarrationWriting a Narrative PaperWriting a Narrative ReportRevising a NarrativeTwo Narrative Student PapersCHAPTER 11, DESCRIPTION: CONVEYING IMPRESSIONSWhat Exactly Is Description?Purpose of DescriptionSubjective and Objective DescriptionWriting a Paper of DescriptionTwo Descriptive Student PapersCHAPTER 12, PROCESS ANALYSIS: EXPLAINING HOWWhat Is Process Analysis?Transition in Process AnalysisWriting a Process PaperTwo Student Process PapersCHAPTER 13, ILLUSTRATION: SHOWING WITH EXAMPLESPurpose of ExamplesElements of IllustrationWriting a Paper of IllustrationTwo Student Illustration Papers CHAPTER 14, CLASSIFICATION: DIVIDING AND GROUPINGPurpose of ClassificationWhat Is the Basis of Classification?Writing a Paper of ClassificationTwo Student Classification Papers CHAPTER 15, COMPARISON AND CONTRAST: EXPLAINING LIKENESS AND DIFFERENCEThe Purpose of Comparison or ContrastTransition in Comparison or Contrast PapersPitfalls to Avoid in Comparison or Contrast PapersAnalogy: A Special Kind of ComparisonWriting a Paper of Comparison of ContrastThree Student Comparison or Contrast Papers CHAPTER 16, DEFINITION: IDENTIFYING BASIC CHARACTERISTICSThe Purpose of DefinitionFormal Sentence DefinitionExtended DefinitionWriting a Paper of Extended DefinitionTwo Student Papers of DefinitionCHAPTER 17, CAUSE AND EFFECT: EXPLAINING WHYThe Purpose of Causal AnalysisWhat Is Causal Analysis?Writing a Cause and Effect PaperTwo Student Cause and Effect PapersPART 4, Guide to Critical Thinking, Evaluation, and ArgumentCHAPTER 18, PROBLEM SOLVINGDewey’s Method of Problem SolvingHow Can One Be Objective?Writing a Problem-Solving PaperTwo Student Problem-Solving PapersCHAPTER 19, SHAPING AN EFFECTIVE ARGUMENTThe Purpose of ArgumentThree Classic Appeals Used in ArgumentUnderstanding Opposing ViewsWriting a Classic Argument PaperTwo Student Argument Papers CHAPTER 20, DETECTING FALLACIESLogical FallaciesEmotional FallaciesDealing with FallaciesPART 5, Research Writing GuideCHAPTER 21, PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS FOR RESEARCH WRITERSPrimary and Secondary ResearchScheduling Research TasksCHAPTER 22, PRIMARY RESEARCH: OBSERVATION, INTERVIEWS, AND SURVEYSObservationInterviewsSurveysDrawing Conclusions from a Survey and InterviewsMaking an Outline of a ReportWriting a Primary Research Paper or ReportCHAPTER 23, SECONDARY RESEARCH: LOCATING PRINT AND ELECTRONIC SOURCESDetermining the Aim or PurposeSelecting an Appropriate TopicLimiting the TopicSelecting Suitable SourcesFinding Print and Electronic Resources at the LibraryFinding and Evaluating Internet SourcesCHAPTER 24, DOCUMENTING SOURCESWhat Is Documentation?MLA DirectoryMLA Style of DocumentationPreparing a List of Works Cited: MLA StyleAPA Style of DocumentationPreparing a Reference List: APA StyleCHAPTER 25, USING AND WRITING FROM SOURCES Workplace Case Study: Tracking the TruthResearch ReadingNote-Taking, Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and QuotingSummarizingMaking a Working OutlineDrafting a Research PaperRevising, Editing, and FormattingStudent Research Paper: MLA StylePART 6, Guide to Reading and Writing about Essays, Fiction, Plays, and PoetryCHAPTER 26, READING AND RESPONDING TO ESSAYSWhat to Expect in Essays ROBERT L. ROSE, Is Saving Legal?Critical ReadingWriting a Paper of ReactionA Sample Student Paper of ReactionCHAPTER 27, READING AND RESPONDING TO SHORT STORIES, NOVELS, AND PLAYSWhat Is the Role of the Reader?Reading and Taking NotesElements of LiteratureFigurative Language and Literary DevicesPreparing an Analysis of LiteratureSample Student Literary AnalysisCHAPTER 28, READING AND RESPONDING TO POETRYHow Can a Reader Get Hold of a Poem?ARTHUR GUITERMAN, On the Vanity of Earthly Greatness CARL SANDBURG, GrassReading Narrative Poems COUNTEE CULLEN, IncidentReading Lyric Poems JOSO, The Barley Field SORA, The Barley Field EMILY DICKINSON, [I Taste a Liquor Never Brewed] ARCHIBALD MACLEISH, Ars PoeticaPreparing an Analysis of a Poem WILLIAM WORDSWORTH, [I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud]PART 7, A Writer’s Reference: Essay Exams, Employment Writing, and Oral PresentationsCHAPTER 29, WRITING EFFECTIVE ESSAY EXAMSPreparing for ExamsWriting Complete Essay Exam AnswersCHAPTER 30, EMPLOYMENT WRITING FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURYI. Writing an Effective ResumeInternet Career DirectoryII. Writing Letters and Other Correspondence for EmploymentCHAPTER 31, ORAL PRESENTATIONSWhether Speaking to Six or SixtyHow Do Writing and Speaking Differ?Four Speaking SituationsAdapting a Written Text for an Oral PresentationPlanning an Extemporaneous PresentationEnsuring Credibility, Organization, and DevelopmentOptions for Introductions and ConclusionsPreparing Notes and AudiovisualsPracticing for a PresentationGiving an Extemporaneous PresentationA Student’s Persuasive Presentation PART 8, The ReaderCHAPTER 32 NARRATION: RECOUNTING EVENTS* DAVID BANK, Rosetta Disk Is Foundation’s Gift to Future LinguistsJEAN HOUSTON, The Art of AcknowledgmentPHILLIP WEISS, How to Get out of a Locked TrunkCARSON MCCULLERS, Home for ChristmasCHAPTER 33 DESCRIPTION: CONVEYING IMPRESSIONSSUE HUBBELL, Caterpillar AfternoonEUDORA WELTY, One Writer’s BeginningsJOHN CIARDI, Dawn WatchLIANE NORMAN, Pedestrian StudentsCHAPTER 34 PROCESS ANALYSIS: EXPLAINING HOWEUELL GIBBONS, How to Cook a CarpNOEL PERRIN, Falling for Apples*CAROL CARTER, Write Your Own Success StoryMARYA MANNES, How Do You Know It’s Good?CHAPTER 35 ILLUSTRATION: SHOWING WITH EXAMPLESETHLIE VARE AND GREG PTACEK, Mothers of InventionVEST, COHEN, AND THARP, Road RageANDREA LEE, Black and Well-to-Do*HOLMAN W JENKINS, JR., Uptight Is Back in StyleCHAPTER 36 CLASSIFICATION: DIVIDING AND GROUPING*KATHLEEN FURY, It’s Only a Paper WorldJAMES T. BAKER, How Do We Find the Student?LISA DAVIS, Where Do We Stand?MEG GREENFIELD, Why Nothing Is ‘Wrong’ AnymoreCHAPTER 37 COMPARISON AND CONTRAST: EXPLAINING LIKENESS AND DIFFERENCEPHILLIP LOPATE, A Nonsmoker and a Smoker*NEAL PEIRCE, Americans: Conservationists or Champion Land Hogs?*DOBRAH TANNEN, Women and Men Talking on the JobAMY TAN, Mother TongueCHAPTER 38 DEFINITION: IDENTIFYING BASIC CHARACTERISTICSDAVID RAYMOND, On Being 17*WILLIAM RASPBERRY, The Handicap of DefinitionBARBARA JORDAN, Becoming Educated*LAURENCE SHAMES, The Sweet Smell of Success Isn’t All That SweetCHAPTER 39 CAUSE AND EFFECT: EXPLAINING WHY*BARBARA EHRENREICH, Spudding Out*ANNE ROIPHE, Why Marriages FailNICHOLAS GAGE, The Teacher Who Changed My LifeELISABETH KUBLER-ROSS, The Emotional QuadrantCHAPTER 40 ARGUMENT: CHANGING READERS’ THINKING AND ACTIONS*MIKE ESKENAZI, The New Case for LatinANDREA SACHS, When the Lullaby Ends*AMITAI ETZIONI, Working at McDonaldsRICHARD M. RESTAK, The Other Difference Between Boys and Girls C.S. LEWIS, We Have No ‘Right to Happiness’CHAPTER 41 SHORT STORIES AND CREATION NARRATIVESShort StoriesURSULA HEGI, DovesCHARLES BAXTER, Scheherazade*KATE CHOPIN, Story of an HourJOHN UPDIKE, Still of Some UseCreation Narratives*PIMA, The Well-Baked Man*GENESIS 1-2:3. From the Torah*GENESIS 1-2:3. From the Bible (KJV)*Selected Verses. From the KoranPART 9, The Handbook: A Brief Guide to Grammar, Mechanics, Punctuation, and Usage1. Punctuation2. Capitalization3. Abbreviations4. Numbers5. Grammar and Usage6. Spelling7. Glossary of Usage