Table of contents for The aims of argument : a rhetoric and reader / Timothy W. Crusius, Carolyn E. Channell.


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*Indicates that the reading selection is new to this edition 

PART ONE, Resources for Reading and Writing Arguments
Chapter One, Understanding Argument
What Is Argument?
What Is Rhetoric?
An Example of Argument
Discussion of “You Have a Right…”
Four Criteria of Mature Reasoning
What Are the Aims of Argument?
Where are the Aims of Argument Used?
A Good Tool for Understanding and Writing Arguments: 
     The Writer’s Notebook
Why Keep a Notebook?
Notebook Options
Keeping a Print Notebook
Keeping an Electronic Notebook
Ways of Using a Notebook

Chapter Two, Reading An Argument
The First Encounter: Seeing the Whole Text in Context
The Second Encounter: Reading and Analyzing the
     Text
Wrestling With Difficult Passages
Using Paraphrase to Aid Comprehension
Analyzing the Reasoning of an Argument
The Third Encounter: Responding Critically to an Argument
	
Chapter Three, Analyzing Arguments: A Simplified Toulmin Method
A Preliminary Critical Reading
A Step-by-Step Demonstration of the Toulmin Method
Find the Exceptions
Analyzing the Reasons
List the Reasons
Examine the Reasons
Analyzing Evidence
Noting Refutations
Summarizing Your Analysis
A Final Note about Logical Analysis

Chapter Four, Reading and Writing about Visual Arguments
Understanding Visual Arguments
“Reading” Images
Analysis:  Five Common Types of Visual Arguments
FOUR-COLOR INSERT (images 1 – 7)
	
Chapter Five, Writing Research-Based Arguments
Finding an Issue
Understand That an Issue Is More Than Just a Topic
Keep Abreast of Current Events
Research the News
Research Your Library’s Periodicals Indexes
Inquire into the Issue
Finding Sources
Field Research	
Library and Online Research	
Internet Research
Evaluating Sources
Eliminate Inappropriate Sources
Carefully Record Complete Bibliographic Information
Read the Source Critically
Inquire into the Source
Consider How You Might Use the Source
Using Sources
Taking Notes
Suggestions for Taking Notes
Paraphrasing
Summarizing
Creating an Annotated Bibliography
Incorporating and Documenting Source Material in the Text of Your Argument
Different Styles of Documentation
Instructions for Using MLA and APA Style
Direct Quotations
Indirect Quotations
Creating a Works-Cited or Reference List
	
PART TWO, The Aims of Argument
Chapter Six, Looking for Some Truth: Arguing to Inquire
Inquiry and Interpretation in Academic Writing
The Writing Project: Exploratory Essay, Part One
Conversations and Dialogue in Inquiry
Inquiry Again: Digging Deeper
The Writing Project: Part Two
The Writing Project: Part Three
After Drafting Your Essay
Inquiry: Summing Up the Aim

Chapter Seven, Making Your Case: Arguing to Convince
The Nature of Convincing: Structure and Strategy
Case Structure
Case Strategy
Thinking about Audience
Formulating the Thesis
Choosing Reasons
Arranging Reasons
Using Evidence
Introducing and Concluding the Argument
The Process of Writing a Convincing Argument

Chapter Eight, Motivating Action: Arguing to Persuade
When to Convince and When to Persuade: A Matter of Emphasis: Reading a Persuasive Essay
Principles
Using the Forms of Appeal
The Process of Writing a Persuasive Essay
		
Chapter Nine, Resolving Conflict: Arguing to Negotiate and Mediate
Resolving Conflict and the Other Aims of Argument
The Process of Negotiation and Mediation
Understanding the Spirit of Negotiation and Mediation
Understanding the Opposing Positions
Defining the Problem in Terms of the Real Interests
Inventing Creative Options
Gathering More Data
Reaching a Solution Based on Agreed-upon Principles
The Mediatory Essay
Analyzing a Mediatory Essay
The Process of Writing a Mediatory Essay
		
Part Three, Two Case Books for Argument
Chapter Ten, Casebook on 09/11/01 and After: Coping With Terrorism
Getting Oriented
* Photographs
I.  Recalling the Attack
	* TIMOTHY TOWNSEND, At Ground Zero: The First Hours
	* KEN KESEY, The Real War
* RESHMA MEMON YAQUB, You People Did This
* Photograph, Author and Son
II. Getting Informed
A.  General Information
* STEPHEN ZUNES, 10 Things to Know About the Middle East
* PAUL WILKINSON, Types of Terrorism
B.  Impact on the United States
* MATTHEW COOPER et al., A Clear and Present Danger
* STEVEN LEVY, Technology: A High-Tech Homefront
C.  Understanding Terrorism
* JIM LANDERS, The Roots of Conflict
* Dallas Morning News, Regional Maps and Timeline
* JIM LANDERS, Bin Laden Allies Want Islamic Unity
* Dallas Morning News, Mapping Sponsors of Terrorism
* GREGG JONES, Cradle of a Holy War
* Agence France-Presse, News Photograph
* Associated Press, News Photograph
* JERROLD M. POST, Terrorist Psycho-Logic: Terrorist Behavior as a Product of Psychological Forces
D.  Conclusion: The Future of Terrorism?
* PAUL WILKINSON, Analysis of Terrorist Weapons and the Liberal State Response
III. Assessing and Responding to Interpretations and Arguments
A. Initial Readings of 9/11
* from “Talk of the Town,” The New Yorker (9/24/01)Hendrik Hertzberg
John Updike
Aharon Appelfeld
Susan Sontag
* JOHN D. FRENCH, Beyond Words, Without Words, and Finding Words: Responding to the Catastrophe
B.  Arguments: Right and Left
* JOHN O’SULLIVAN, Their Amerika: The Song of the Counter-Tribalists
* WILLIAM BENNETT, America Was Attacked Because It Is Good
* STANLEY FISH, Condemnation Without Absolutes
* CHALMERS JOHNSON, Blowback
C.  A Conflict of Cultures?
* SAMUEL P. HUNTINGTON, The Clash of Civilizations?
* EDWARD W. SAID, The Clash of Ignorance	
D.  Conclusion: Two Philosophical Interpretations
* CHARLES KRAUTHAMMER, The Enemy Is Not Islam: It Is Nihilism
* JAMES ATLAS, Among the Lost: Illusions of Immortality
Terrorism: For Further Reading and Research

Chapter 11, Casebook on Marriage and Family: Responding to a Changing Institution
Getting Oriented: Then and Now, Ideal and Real
* Photographs
I.   Facts About Families
* SUZANNE M. BIANCHI and LYNNE M. CASPER, American Families
ARLENE SKOLNICK, The Paradox of Perfection
II.  Love and Marriage
*  LINDA WAITE and MAGGIE GALLAGHER, Happily Ever After?
*  LAURA KIPNIS, Against Love
Couples Eating and Drinking, Photo Essay
TOM CHENEY, Cartoon
* NORAH VINCENT, What Is This Thing Called Love?
* ETHAN WATTERS, In My Tribe
The Author and His Tribe at Play, Photograph
III.  The Divorce Debate
BARBARA DAFOE WHITEHEAD, The Making of a Divorce Culture
STEPHANIE COONTZ, The Future of Marriage
* PATRICK F. FAGAN and ROBERT RECTOR, The Effects of Divorce on America
* BARBARA EHRENREICH, In Defense of Splitting Up
* WILLIAM JELANI COBB, Alone
* DIANA JEAN SCHEMO, In Covenant Marriage, Forging Ties That Bind Two “Wedding” Days, Photographs
IV.  The Changing Family
MIDGE DECTER, The Madness of the American Family
BETTY HOLCOMB, Families Are Changing - For the Better
DAVID POPENOE, A World without Fathers
* LOUISE B. SILVERSTEIN and CARL F. AUERBACH, The Myth of the “Normal” Family
* BARBARA LEBEY, American Families Are Drifting Apart
* PAM HOUSTON, Creating Your Own
Marriage and Family: For Further Reading and Research

Part Four, Readings: Issues and Arguments
Chapter 12, Feminism: Evaluating the Effects of Gender Roles
CASSANDRA LANGER, What Is Feminism?
KIRK ANDERSON, Cartoon
BETTY FRIEDAN, The Problem That Has No Name
SUZANNE FIELDS, Mission No Longer Impossible - Or Is It?
B. SMALLER, Cartoon
JOAN WILLIAMS, Reconstructive Feminism
GARY TRUDEAU, Cartoon
KATIE ROIPHE, The Independent Woman (and Other Lies)
ANNE ROIPHE, A Real Mother in the Modern World
NAOMI WOLF, The Beauty Myth
Lawman Jeans, A Magazine Advertisement for Women’s Jeans
KATHA POLLITT, Women’s Rights: As the World Turns

Chapter 13, Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Rights: Responding to Homophobia
JEFFREY NICKEL, Everybody's Threatened by Homophobia
PETE HAMILL, Confessions of a Heterosexual
GARY TRUDEAU, Cartoon
PETER J. GOMES, Homophobic?  Reread Your Bible
JONATHAN ALTER, Degrees of Discomfort
JONATHAN RAUCH, Beyond Oppression
TONIA A. H. McNAROW, In or Out in the Classroom?

Chapter 14, The News and Ethics: Reading Journalism Today
JACK FULLER, What Is News?     
MICHAEL SCHUDSON, In All Fairness     
JIM SQUIRES, The Impossibility of Fairness     
MIKE TWOHY, Cartoon
W. LANCE BENNETT, Escaping the News Prison: How People See Beyond the Walls     
JAMES FALLOWS,  Public Journalism: An Attempt to Connect the Media with the Public

Chapter 15, Liberal Education and Contemporary Culture: What Should Undergraduates Learn?
ARTHUR LEVINE and JEANETTE S. CURETON, College Life: An Obituary     
LOIS BERNSTEIN, Photograph
MARK EDMUNDSON, On the Uses of Liberal Education:  As Lite Entertainment for Bored College Students
EARL SHORRIS, On the Uses of Liberal Education: As a Weapon in the Hands of the Restless Poor
JOHN TAGG, The Decline of the Knowledge Factory:  Why Our Colleges Must Change  

Chapter 16, Race and Class: Examining Social Inequality
BRUCE ROBERTS, Photograph
MICHAEL LIND, The Beige and the Black     
ABIGAIL AND STEPHAN THERNSTROM, Black Progress:  How Far We've Come And How Far We Have to Go
A. RAMEY, Photograph
LINDA DARLING-HAMMOND, Unequal Opportunity: Race and Education     
SHELBY STEELE, The Recoloring of Campus Life 
PATRICIA J. WILLIAMS, The Distribution of Distress

Appendix, A Short Guide to Editing and Proofreading
Glossary of Terms



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: English language Rhetoric, Persuasion (Rhetoric) College readers, Report writing