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Preface Part I. Introduction to Telecommunications 1. Introduction To Telecommunications Convergence: Two Examples Fragmentation of the Audience Concentration of Ownership and Conglomeration Globalization Hypercommercialization The Inevitability of Convergence Studying Telecommunications Getting Started • Conflicting Telecommunications Cultures 2. Radio and Audio Preview Technological and Economic Roots Early Advances in Audio Recording • The Coming of Broadcasting • The Coming of Regulation • Advertising and the Networks • The Golden Age Contemporary Radio FM, AM, and Noncommercial Radio • Radio's Local Nature • Radio's Fragmented Nature • Radio's Specialized Nature • Radio's Personal Nature • Radio's Mobile Nature The Business of Radio Radio as an Advertising Medium • Deregulation and Ownership New Technology, Audience Fragmentation, and Convergence Satellite and Cable • Digital Technology • Digital Radio • Web Radio 3. Television Preview Technological and Economic Roots Mechanical and Electronic Scanning • The Freeze • The Fifties Television and Its Audiences Network Television The Affiliates • The Networks and Program Content New and Converging Television Technologies Remote Control • Cable • VCR • DVD • Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) • Digital Video Recorders • The Internet • Digital Television 4. Noncommercial Broadcasting Preview The Roots of Educational Broadcasting Educational Television From Educational to Public Broadcasting Public Broadcasting Today • Criticisms of Public Broadcasting • NPR • PRI • PBS Other Noncommercial Broadcasters College Radio • Community Radio • Religious Radio and Television Stations 5. Corporate and Industrial Telecommunications Preview Roots of Corporate and Industrial Telecommunications Corporate and Industrial Telecommunications Today Converging Technologies and Applications of Corporate and Industrial Telecommunications Satellites and Videoconferencing • Satellites and Video Networks • Satellite-Delivered Media Tours and Video News Releases • Telecommunications Satellites • CD-ROM, Videodiscs, and Multi-media • The Internet and World Wide Web • Converging Functions 6. Cable Preview Technological and Economic Roots Cable Reception and Distribution • Cable's Economic Structure • Early Regulation of Cable Cable Today Programming • Concentration • The Telcos • Satellite 7. The Internet Preview Technological Roots of the Internet The Development of the Computer • Military Applications • The Personal Computer The Internet Today The Operation of the Internet The Internet and Its Users The Commercialization of the Internet E-commerce and E-tailing • Portals • Concentration Emerging Internet Technologies: The Heart of Convergence Wireless Internet • Embedded Systems • Push Technology • MP3 • Internet Video • Linux Part II. The Practice of Telecommunications 8. Conceptualizing and Counting the Audience Preview The Broadcast versus the Telecom Model The Broadcast Audience The Roots of Audience Measurement A.C. Nielsen • Arbitron Contemporary Radio Ratings Contemporary Television Ratings Demographics • Sampling Ratings Problems and Controversies Broadcaster/Ratings Service Conflict • Why the Ratings Are Used Counting Internet and Web Users 9. Advertising Preview The Roots of Broadcast Advertising Early Television Advertising • The Evolution of Television Commercials • Combating Clutter Contemporary Radio Advertising Radio Sales • Radio as an Advertising Medium Contemporary Television Advertising Television Sales • Television as an Advertising Medium Contemporary Cable Television Advertising Cable as an Advertising Medium • Barter and Co-op Advertising • Other Forms of Broadcast and Cable Advertising Contemporary Online Advertising Online Classified Advertising • The Web as an Advertising Medium The Advertising Environment The Regulation of Advertising • Increased Audience Segmentation • Criticism of Advertising 10. Programming Preview Radio Programming Programming Music Format Commercial Radio • Programming News and Information Format • Consultants, Syndicators, and Networks • Programming Noncommercial Radio Broadcast Television Programming Programming Prime Time Network Television • How a Program Gets on the Air • Changes in Program Ownership • Programming Practices • Programming Non-Prime Time Network Television Programming Local Commercial Television Syndication Buying Syndicated Programming National Cable Television Programming 11. Global Telecommunications Preview The Roots of Global Telecommunications International Telecommunications Before Satellites • Satellites and Global Telecommunications Global Telecommunications Today Comparative Analysis: Four Theories and Five Concepts • Programming The Debate Over Cultural Imperialism Part III. Telecommunications Rights and Responsibilities 12. Rights and Regulations Preview The Roots of Telecommunications Regulation Defining and Refining the First Amendment • Other Issues of Media Freedom The Federal Communications Commission Other Regulatory Agencies Contemporary Issues In Regulation Contemporary Cable Regulation • Regulating Digital Television • Regulating the Internet 13. Ethics and Self Regulation Preview Social Responsibility Media Industry Ethics Defining Ethics • Three Levels of Ethics • Balancing Conflicting Interests • Theories of Moral Reasoning • Applying Media Ethics • Making Ethical Decisions Codes of Ethics and Self Regulation Other Forms of Self Regulation • Limitations of Self Regulation 14. Effects Preview The Effects Debate The Pros and Cons of Media Effects Media Effects Violence • Drugs and Alcohol • Gender and Racial Stereotyping • Political Campaigns and Voting • Prosocial Effects Online Democracy Information, Knowledge, and Understanding Chapter Review Questions For Review Questions For Critical Thinking and Discussion Engaging Telecommunications Glossary References At the end of each chapter: Chapter Review Questions for Review Questions for Critical Thinking and Discussion Engaging Telecommunications