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* New to this edition 1. Critical Thinking, Reading, and Writing Preparing to Read Critical Reading Beyond Content: Focusing on Structure Paraphrasing, Summarizing, Quoting Reading and Analyzing Visual Texts * Classic and Contemporary Images: How Do We Communicate? Amos Bad Heart, View of Chief Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull Thomas E. Franklin, Fire Fighters Raising the Flag at Ground Zero The Writing Process Drafting Revising Student Essay (Jamie Taylor), Cultist Behavior or Doltish Behavior? Readings for Critical Response and for Writing Mortimer J. Adler, How to Read a Book Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Cult of Ethnicity Annie Dillard, The Writing Life * Peter Elbow, Freewriting * Donald M. Murray, The Maker’s Eye: Revising Your Own Manuscripts 2. Reading and Writing Effective Arguments The Purpose of Argumentation The Test of Justification The Language of Argument Appeals to Reason, Emotion, and Ethics Thinking Critically About Argument Writing Powerful Arguments Readings for Critical Response and Writing Classic and Contemporary Essays: How Do We Argue? H.L. Mencken, The Penalty of Death * Coretta Scott King, The Death Penalty Is a Step Back * Abraham Lincoln, The Gettysburg Address * Classic and Contemporary Images: What Is an Argument? Francisco de Goya, The Third of May, 1808 Eddie Adams, Police Chief Brigadier General Nguyen Ngoc Loan Executes a Viet Cong Officer Two Argumentative Essays for Analysis * Barbara Lawrence, Four-Letter Words Can Hurt You * Molly Ivins, Get a Knife, Get a Dog, but Get Rid of Guns 3. Education * Classic and Contemporary Images: Does Education Change Over Time? Zoology Lab, Oberlin College during the 1890s Tom Stewart, Food Science Lab, University of Maine during the 1990s Classic and Contemporary Essays: What Is the Value of Education? Fredrick Douglass, Learning to Read and Write Richard Rodriguez, The Lonely, Good Company of Books Maya Angelou, Graduation * Santha Rama Rau, By Any Other Name Anna Quindlen, Sex Ed * David Gelernter, Unplugged: The Myth of Computers in the Classroom Susan Jacoby, When Bright Girls Decide That Math is "a Waste of Time" E. D.Hirsch, Jr., Why America’s Universities Are Better than Its Schools Gloria Steinem, The Good News Is: These Are Not the Best Years of Your Life Benjamin R. Barber, America Skips School 4. Family Roles and Gender Roles: How Do We Become Who We Are? * Classic and Contemporary Images: How Do We Respond to Social Events? Pieter Brueghel the younger, Rustic Wedding Vanessa Vick, Photograph from a Contemporary Wedding Reception Classic and Contemporary Essays: How Much Do Families Matter? * E.B. White, Once More to the Lake Barbara Kingsolver, Stone Soup Annie Dillard, An American Childhood * Richard Rodriguez, Family Values Amitai Etzioni, Parenting as an Industry Francis Fukuyama, Immigrants and Family Values Margaret Atwood, The Female Body Paul Theroux, Being a Man * Natalie Angier, Why Men Don’t Last Deborah Tannen, Sex, Lies, and Conversation: Why Is It So Hard For Men and Women to Talk to Each Other? 5. History, Culture, and Civilization: Are We Citizens of the World? * Classic and Contemporary Images: How Do We Become Americans? Alice Austin, Immigrants arriving at Ellis Island Associated Press, Illegal Immigrants Crossing the Border Between Guatemala and Mexico, 1999 Classic and Contemporary Essays: Are We Heading Toward a World Culture? Oliver Goldsmith, National Prejudices * Ishmael Reed, America: The Multinational Society Judith Ortiz Cofer, The Myth of the Latin Woman: I Just Met a Girl Named Maria N. Scott Momaday, The Way to Rainy Mountain Langston Hughes, Salvation Maxine Hong Kingston, The Woman Warrior Edward T. Hall, The Arab World * Barbara Tuchman, This Is the End of the World: The Black Death * Ronald Takaki, Strangers From a Distant Shore * Jessica Mitford, The American Way of Death 6. Government, Politics, and Social Justice: How Do We Decide What Is Fair? * Classic and Contemporary Images: Is There Too Much Money in Politics? Thomas Nast, The ‘Brains’ That Achieved the Tammany Victory at the Rochester Democratic Convention Ann Telnaes, Soft Money Raised Classic and Contemporary Essays: What Is the American Dream? Thomas Jefferson, The Declaration of Independence: In Congress, July 4, 1776 Martin Luther King, Jr., I Have a Dream * George Orwell, Shooting an Elephant * Esther Dyson, Cyberspace: If You Don’t Love It, Leave It Niccolo Machiavelli, The Circle of Governments Bruce Catton, Grant and Lee: A Study in Contrast * Bharati Mukherjee, American Dreamer Martin Luther King, Jr., The World House James Baldwin, Stranger in the Village Alexis de Tocqueville, Some Reflections on American Manners 7. Business and Economics: How Do We Earn Our Keep? * Classic and Contemporary Images: Will Workers Be Displaced by Machines? Diego Rivera, Portion of a mural from the Detroit Institute of Arts George Haling, Photograph of a Chrysler Assembly Line Classic and Contemporary Essays: Does Equal Opportunity Exist? Virginia Woolf, Professions for Woman Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Delusions of Grandeur Anna Quindlen, Men at Work Perri Klass, Ambition * Chang Rae Lee, Uncle Chul Gets Rich * Benjamin Franklin, The Way to Wealth Richard Rodriguez, Los Pobres Robert Reich, Why the Rich are Getting Richer, and the Poor, Poorer * Harvey Cox, The Market as God Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal 8. Philosophy, Ethics, and Religion: What Do We Believe? * Classic and Contemporary Images: How Do We View Angels and Devils? Islamic art from India, Angel and Mortal Jacob Epstein, St. Michael and the Devil, Coventry Cathedral Classic and Contemporary Essays: Is Superstition a Sign of Weakness or Strength? * Margaret Mead, New Superstitions for Old * Letty Cottin Pogrebin, Superstitious Minds Robert Coles, I Listen to My Parents and I Wonder What They Believe William J. Bennett, What Really Ails America Virginia Woolf, The Death of the Moth Plato, The Allegory of the Cave John Donne, No Man Is an Island Gilbert Highet, The Mystery of Zen Stephen L. Carter, The Culture of Disbelief C.S. Lewis, The Rival Conceptions of God *9. Communication, Film, and Media: How Do We Express Ourselves? * Classic and Contemporary Images: What Do Gangster Films Reveal about Us? Edward G. Robinson in Little Caesar, 1930 Al Pacino in The Godfather, Part III, 1990 Classic and Contemporary Essays: Why Are We Fascinated by Outlaws? * Robert Warshow, The Gangster as Tragic Hero * Roger Ebert, Review of Goodfellas * Amy Tan, The Language of Discretion Rita Dove, Loose Ends Marie Winn, Television Addiction Henry Louis Gates, Jr., 2 Live Crew, Decoded * Stephen King, My Creature from the Black Lagoon Dave Barry, Red, White, and Beer George Orwell, Politics and the English Language Casey Miller and Kate Swift, Who’s in Charge of the English Language? 10. Science and Technology: What Can Science Teach Us? * Classic and Contemporary Images: Where Is Science Taking Us? Flemish School, The Movements of the Sun and Moon, Fifteenth Century J. Hester and P. Scowen, Photograph of Gaseous Pillars taken from the Hubble Space Telescope, 1995 *Classic and Contemporary Essays: What Is Technological Progress? Lewis Mumford, The Monastery and the Clock Jeremy Rifkin, The Age of Simulation Charles Darwin, Natural Selection * Richard Selzer, Sarcophagus Carl Sagan, Can We Know the Universe? Reflections on a Grain of Sand Perri Klass, Macho * Lewis Thomas, The Technology of Medicine * Loren Eiseley, The Bird and the Machine Stephen J. Gould, The Terrifying Normalcy of AIDS Terry Tempest Williams, The Clan of One-breasted Women 11. Nature and the Environment: How Do We Relate to the Natural World? * Classic and Contemporary Images: Are We Destroying Our Natural World? John Frederick Kensett, Along the Hudson Michael Brophy, Powerline Classic and Contemporary Essays: Do We Own Nature? Chief Seattle, Letter to President Pierce, 1855 * Barry Lopez, The Stone Horse Rachel Carson, The Obligation to Endure * Alice Walker, Am I Blue? * Noel Perrin, The Greenest Campuses: An Idiosyncratic Guide Gretel Ehrlich, The Solace of Open Spaces Mark Twain, Two Views of The Mississippi Barbara Kingsolver, High Tide in Tucson Henry David Thoreau, Economy John Steinbeck, Americans and the Land 12. A Guide to Research and Documentation Research Writing: Preconceptions and Practice The Research Process Phases in the Research Process Phase 1: Defining Your Objective Phase 2: Locating Your Sources Phase 3: Gathering and Organizing Data Phase 4: Writing and Submitting the Paper Documenting Sources Sample Student Paper