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International Politics on the World Stage Preface To the Student Acknowledgements Contents in Brief MAPS: 1. Levels of Human Development 2. GDP Per Capita in U.S. Dollars 3. Per Capita GDP-PPP 4. World Map 5. Military Expenditures as Percent of Gross Domestic Product 6. Cold War Europe, 1955 7. Post-Cold War International Alliances 8. National Dates of Independence 9. Territorial Changes in the Middle East, World War I to Present 10. Number of Ethnonational Groups That Make Up More than 10 Percent of the Population 11. Average Annual Population Growth Rate, 1990-1995 12. Primary Products as a Percentage of Exports 13. The Female/Male Inequality Gap in the Monied Workforce and in Secondary Education 14. Common Pollutants in Thousands of Metric Tons PART I: APPROACHES TO WORLD POLITICS CHAPTER 1: THINKING AND CARING ABOUT WORLD POLITICS The Importance of Studying World Politics World Politics and Your Pocketbook World Politics and Your Living Space World Politics and Your Life Can We Make a Difference? The World Tomorrow: Two Roads Diverge Realism and Idealism: Some Travel Notes on Two Roads The Nature of Politics: Realism and Idealism The Roles of Power and Justice: Realism and Idealism Prospects for Competition and Cooperation: Realism and Idealism Assessing Reality: Realism and Idealism How to Study World Politics Political Scientists and World Politics What to Study: Levels of Analysis CHAPTER SUMMARY CHAPTER 2: THE EVOLUTION OF WORLD POLITICS The Evolving World System: Early Development The Evolving World System: The Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries The Evolving World System: The Twentieth Century The Twentieth Century: The Years to World War II The Twentieth Century: The Cold War Begins and Ends Toward the Twenty-First Century: Changes and Choices Political Structure and Orientation: Changes and Choices Security: Changes and Choices International Economics: Changes and Choices The Quality of Life: Changes and Choices CHAPTER SUMMARY CHAPTER 3: SYSTEM-LEVEL ANALYSIS Understanding Political Systems: The World and Your School Structural Characteristics The Organization of Authority The Actors Scope and Level of Interaction Power Relationships Number of System Poles Concentration of Power Power Changes: Causes and Effects Economic Patterns Norms of Behavior System-Level Analysis: Predicting Tomorrow CHAPTER SUMMARY CHAPTER 4: STATE-LEVEL ANALYSIS Understanding State-Level Analysis Making Foreign Policy: Types of Government, Situations, and Policy Types of Government Types of Situations Types of Policy Making Foreign Policy: Political Culture National Core Favorable World Order Projecting Values Making Foreign Policy: Actors in the Process Political Executives Bureaucracies Legislatures Political Opposition Interest Groups The People CHAPTER SUMMARY CHAPTER 5: INDIVIDUAL-LEVEL ANALYSIS Individual-Level Analysis: Human Nature Cognitive Factors Psychological Factors Biological Factors Individual-Level Analysis: Organizational Behavior Role Behavior Group Decision-Making Behavior Individual-Level Analysis: Idiosyncratic Behavior Personality Physical and Mental Health Ego and Ambition Political History and Personal Experiences Perceptions CHAPTER SUMMARY PART II: TWO ROADS: DIVERGENT POLITICAL ORIENTATIONS CHAPTER 6: NATIONALISM: THE TRADITIONAL ORIENTATION Understanding Nations, Nation-States, and Nationalism Nations Nation-States Nationalism The Evolution of Nationalism The Rise of Nationalism The Predicted Demise of Nationalism Persistent Nationalism Nationalism: Builder and Destroyer The Beneficent Face of Nationalism The Troubled Face of Nationalism Nationalism and the Future Self-Determination as a Goal Nationalism: Will the Curtain Fall? CHAPTER SUMMARY CHAPTER 7: TRANSNATIONALISM: THE ALTERNATIVE ORIENTATION The Origins and Impact of Transnationalism Transnational Thought Transnational Interaction Transnational economics Transnational communications Transnational transportation Transnational organizations The Transnational Women's Movement The Transnational Women's Movement: Philosophy and Goals The Transnational Women's Movement: Programs and Progress Transnational Religion Religion and World Politics The Strength of Religious Fundamentalism Islam and the World Transnational Culture The Culture of McWorld The Culture of Jihad Transnationalism Tomorrow CHAPTER SUMMARY PART III: TWO ROADS: DIVERGENT ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES CHAPTER 8: NATIONAL STATES: THE TRADITIONAL STRUCTURE The Nature and Origins of the State The State Defined The Origins of the State The State as the Core Political Organization Theories of Governance National and Other Interests States and the Future The State: The Indictment The State: The Defense The State: The Verdict CHAPTER SUMMARY CHAPTER 9: INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION: THE ALTERNATIVE STRUCTURE The Nature and Development of International Organization Types of International Organizations The Roots of International Organization The Expansion of IGOs Goals of International Organization Existing and Possible Roles of IGOs Regional IGOs: Focus on the European Union The Origins and Evolution of the European Union The Government of Europe: A Prototype The Future of the EU Global IGOs: Focus on the United Nations IGO Organization and Related Issues IGO Financing and Related Issues IGO Activities and Related Issues Evaluating IGOs and Their Future CHAPTER SUMMARY PART IV: TWO ROADS: DIVERGENT APPROACHES TO CONDUCT CHAPTER 10: NATIONAL POWER AND DIPLOMACY: THE TRADITIONAL APPROACH National Power: The Foundation of National Diplomacy The Nature of Power The Elements of Power The National Core The National Infrastructure The Nature of Diplomacy The Functions of Diplomacy The Diplomatic Setting The Evolution of Diplomacy Early Diplomacy Modern Diplomacy The Conduct of Diplomacy The Rules of Effective Diplomacy Options for Conducting Diplomacy CHAPTER SUMMARY CHAPTER 11: INTERNATIONAL LAW AND MORALITY: THE ALTERNATIVE APPROACH Fundamentals of International Law and Morality Primitive Nature of International Law Growth of International Law The Practice of International Law The Fundamentals of International Morality The International Legal System The Philosophical Roots of Law How International Law Is Made Adherence to the Law Adjudication of the Law Applying International Law and Morality Law and Morality: Issues of Cultural Perspective Applying International Law and Morality in a Multicultural World Applying International Law and Morality to States Applying International Law and Morality to Individuals Law and Morality: Issues of Prudent Judgment and Application The Future of International Law and Morality CHAPTER SUMMARY PART V: PURSUING PEACE CHAPTER 12: NATIONAL SECURITY: THE TRADITIONAL ROAD War and World Politics War: The Human Record The Causes of War: Three Levels of Analysis Force as a Political Instrument National Military Power Levels of Violence: From Intimidation to Attack Effectiveness of Force The Changing Nature of War Classifying Wars Local Conflict Arms Transfers Covert Operations and Terrorism Direct Military Intervention Regional Conflict Goals and Conduct Avoiding Unchecked Escalation Strategic Nuclear War How a Nuclear War Might Start The Impact of Nuclear War Strategic Nuclear Weapons and Strategy Deterrence Nuclear weapons and strategy issues CHAPTER SUMMARY CHAPTER 13: INTERNATIONAL SECURITY: THE ALTERNATIVE ROAD Thinking about Security A Tale of Insecurity Seeking Security: Approaches and Standards of Evaluation Limited Self-Defense through Arms Control Methods of Achieving Arms Control The History of Arms Control The Barriers to Arms Control International Security Forces International Security Forces: Theory and Practice Abolition of War Complete Disarmament Pacifism CHAPTER SUMMARY PART VI: PURSUING PROSPERITY CHAPTER 14: THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMY: A GLOBAL ROAD MAP Theories of International Political Economy Economic Nationalism Economic Internationalism Economic Structuralism Two Economic Worlds: North and South Two Economic Worlds: Analyzing the Data Two Economic Worlds: Human Conditions Two Economic Worlds: Approaches to North-South Relations The Growth and Extent of International Political Economy Trade International Investment Monetary Relations The Impact of Expanded Economic Interchange CHAPTER SUMMARY CHAPTER 15: NATIONAL ECONOMIC COMPETITION: THE TRADITIONAL ROAD National Economic Power: Assets and Utilization National Economic Power Political Uses of the Economic Instrument The North and International Political Economy The National Economies of the North National Economic Issues and Policies of the North The South and International Political Economy Development in the South: Status Development in the South: Capital Needs Development in the South: LDC Perspectives and Policies The Future of National Economic Policy Barriers to Free Economic Interchange Free Economic Interchange: The Debate CHAPTER SUMMARY CHAPTER 16: INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC COOPERATION: THE ALTERNATIVE ROAD The Origins of Economic Cooperation Global Economic Cooperation General Economic Cooperation: The UN General Economic Cooperation: Other IGOs and Processes Trade Cooperation: GATT and the WTO Monetary Cooperation: The IMF Development Cooperation: The World Bank Group Regional Economic Cooperation Europe The Western Hemisphere Asia, the Pacific, and Elsewhere The Future of Regionalism CHAPTER SUMMARY PART VII: PURSUING PRESERVATION CHAPTER 17: PRESERVING AND ENHANCING HUMAN RIGHTS AND DIGNITY The Biosphere and Its Inhabitants: The Essence of Politics The Nature of Human Rights Human Rights: Quality of Life Issues and Progress Food Health Education Human Rights Issues regarding Abuses of Individuals and Groups Human Rights Abuses: Diverse Discrimination and Oppression The International Response to Individual and Group Human Rights Issues CHAPTER SUMMARY CHAPTER 18: PRESERVING AND ENHANCING THE GLOBAL COMMONS Toward Sustainable Development The Ecological State of the World Sustainable Development Sustainable Development: Issues and Cooperation Population Issues and Cooperation Resources Issues and Cooperation Resource Conservation: The Global Response Environmental Issues and Cooperation CHAPTER SUMMARY An Epilogue to the Text/A Prologue to the Future Explanatory Notes Endnotes Glossary Abbreviations References Index