Table of contents for Pinhole photography : from historic technique to digital application / Eric Renner.


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CHAPTER 1 * Pinhole's History in the Exploration of Science
and Ideology ...........................................................     1
The pinhole archetype-from the darkness of caves and holed stones ............. 2
The  Pinhole  Archetype  ................................................... ............... 2
Early pinhole optics-eclipses, telling time, astrolabes, and optical
phenom  ena  ........................................      ............. .............. 5
The camera obscura and human understanding..................          ......11
Noon-marks in Italian Renaissance cathedrals............................. 17
The  pinhole  in the wave theory  of light............................ ... ...................... 21
Diffraction  ................................ . ......................... .............23
Interference  ....................................................... .............. ............  24
The  pinhole  and  the  eye................................................................ .......... ...............25
Research  into  optim al pinholes  ....................................................  28
Twentieth-century pinhole imaging in high-energy physics................................... 30
CHAPTER 2          *  Pinhole's History in the Exploration of Art............ 37
Brunelleschi's pinhole perspective device ..................       .........37
Alberti's  first diffraction  cam era.................................. ................ ..............40
A lberti's  intersector.......................................... ........................ 4 4
Leonardo da Vinci ................................               ............... 44
Anamorph-the deception of the eye ................................... 51
The first pinhole photographs in art ..................................... .................... 55
Pinhole's popularity in early pictorialism: George Davison.............................  58
A ugust  Strindberg  .................................................. ............... ............  62
Pinhole's demise in the early 20th century............................. ................. 65
CHAPTER 3          *  Pinhole's Revival .......................................         ..... 69
Rebirth (1960-1990)        ............ .............................      69
CHAPTER 4 * The Body as Camera, the Room as Camera
Obscura...............................................................    99
The  body  as camera ..................................       ......................... 99
Room  -sized  cam era  obscuras................................ ..................... ......................... 107
Taken with time: a camera obscura project ..................................... ....122
The legacy project: the great picture .............................. . ....................123
CHAPTER 5 * The Basic How-To of Pinhole Photography ......... 127
Basic  instructions for pinhole  photography....................... .... ......................... 129
The  cam era  ......................................................... ............. ............ 129
M aterials  needed  ..........................................................   131
A dd ing  the  p inho le  ............................................................................................... 13 2
M o unting  the  p inho le  ........................................................................................... 13 2
Painting the interior of the camera black ....................           .....133
Loading  the  pinhole  cam era  ........................................ ......................... 135
Exposing  the  negative  .........................................    ...............138
D eveloping  .......................... ..................   ............. ...........  14 1
M otion  ....................................................... ............. ...........  14 1
Photographing    the  m iniature  ........................................ ........................   146
M ultiple  cam eras  ................................................................................................. 14 7
Popular m  isconceptions  ................................................................   150
W orldw ide  Pinhole  Photography   Day ............................................................. 152
CHAPTER 6 * The Advanced How-To of Pinhole Photography... 153
O ptim al pinhole  form ulas  ..................................................................   153
F inding  the  f/sto p  ................................................................................................. 15 6
M ethods  used  for m easuring  the  pinhole ............................................................ 156
Additional inform  ation  about the  pinhole  ................................................... ....... 158
Building plans for a 4 X 5-inch superwide pinhole camera ................................. 158
M aking  a  pinhole  turret .................................................................   161
Pinhole  cam era  geom etries  .................................................................. 163
D e pth  of  fie ld  ......................................................................................................... 16 3
Photographing    onto  a  flat film  plane  .................................................. ............   164
Photographing    onto  a  curved  film  plane  ........................................................ 172
Photographing onto an angled flat film plane ....................................   177
Exposure   tim es  ................................................................... 179
Additional exposing techniques ...........      ......................         182
Exposing with polaroid materials ..................................................... 182
F ilters  ..............................................       ..........................  18 4
S hutters  .... . . . . ................ ..................................................... ................................18 7
V iew finders  ...............................................................187
Other unusual pinhole cameras .................................................. 188
Altering existing cameras to pinhole ................................... ...... .....193
CHAPTER 7 * Alternative Apertures: Zone Plates and Slits........197
Z o ne  plates ..... . . . . ................................................................... ...............................19 7
Z one  plate  cam eras  ................................................................... 199
M ounting  a  zone  plate.............................................................   20 2
Exposing  ..........................................................          20  2
Increasing  contrast in  zone  plate  negatives ..................................................... 203
S lit  im aging  ...................................................... ............. .............  20 6
Alternatives to  slits................................................       ... 210
CHAPTER 8 * Digital Imaging with Pinholes, Zone Plates, and
Alternatives ..           ...........................                         213
Making digital pinhole and zone plate images .....................................   214
Pinhole spy cameras .......................................................... 220
Digital printing for nonsilver processes...................           .......223
CHAPTER 9            * The Changing Pinhole Image ...............................                      225
T heory  ........................................  .................. ............... ............. 2 2 5
Images ........................................................                 226
Into space: solar and lunar imaging .................................... ....................236
RESOURCES                ..........................................                                     243
Pinhole  photography   workshops ................................... .. ..........................243
General pinhole photography information ...................................... ....243
Nonprofit organizations........................... ........      ........................243
Events  .........................            ..................... .............. ..............  244
Online galleries specializing in pinhole photography .................................... 244
Private individuals and small companies making pinhole products ................ 244
Commercial photographic suppliers carrying pinhole products..............       245
High  tech  suppliers .................................................      ..... 246
General websites on pinhole photography ........................................  246
Individual pinhole  photographers' websites......................................................  246
A  short list of other pinhole  websites:.............................. .........................  248
Websites devoted to pinhole photographers from individual countries........ 248
Recently published books .....................................                  248
Recently  published  monographs .................................... . ........................ 249
Recent self-published books and museum/gallery catalogs............................250
Pinhole noonmarks, pinhole perspective devices ................................................251



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Photography, Pinhole