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Key Definitions 3 Broadsides, Banners, and Posters 3 Propaganda and Mass Persuasion 7 Changing Trends 9 Technology 9 SocialAttitudes 12 Education 13 Legislation 14 Advertising and Political Marketing 15 Art and Graphic Design 18 Continuing Practices 22 Research Purposes 25 CHAPTER TWO Broadsides and Posters in Early U.S. Presidential Election Campaigns 27 The "Heroic Man of the People" Against the "Aristocrat" (1828) 29 "Old Tippecanoe," "The Little Magician," and "The Log Cabin Campaign" (1836 and 1840) 33 Pre-Civil War Elections: The Increased Standardization of Propaganda Posters (1844-1860) 37 "The Rail Splitter" Becomes "The Great Emancipator," and the Politics of Race (1860 and 1864) 39 Posters and Propaganda Strategy in Post-Civil War Elections (1868-1892) 42 Broadsides and Posters in the Contest Between Advocates of "Free Silver" and "The Gold Standard" (1896) 46 Election Campaigns Between the Depressions of 1896 and 1929 49 CHAPTER THREE U.S. Presidential Election Posters in the Age of Mass Media 61 Franklin D. Roosevelt's Four Campaigns (1932-1944) 62 Posters at the Dawn of the Television Era (1948-1956) 67 Posters in the Era of Television Dominance (1960-2004) 73 CHAPTER FOUR Politics and Posters in France 101 Broadsides and Posters in the Emergence of Representative Politics in France 102 The Second Republic and Second Empire Under Louis Napoleon Bonaparte 103 The Third French Republic 105 Charles de Gaulle and the Fourth and Fifth Republics 110 The Role of Posters in French Elections in the Mass Media Age 115 CHAPTER FIVE Broadsides and Posters in British Election Campaigns 125 The Genesis of Representative British Politics and the First Broadsides in Great Britain 125 The Role of Election Broadsides as the British Electorate Expanded 127 Posters, the Rise and Fall of the Liberals, and the Growth of the Labour Party 131 The Role of Posters in British Elections in the Mass Media Age 144 CHAPTER SIX Posters in Election Campaigns Around the Rest of the World 163 Africa 166 South Africa: Nelson Mandela and the ANC Victory (1994) 167 Asia 169 Japan: A Traditional Society Moves Toward Image Management in Politics in 2001 170 Taiwan: The Rise and Fall of the Kuomintang Party (1949-2004) 174 Europe 178 Germany. fom the Prussian Monarchy of the 1840s to Reunification in 1990 181 Poland and the Free Elections of 1990 and 1991 198 Hungary' Fight for Democracy and the 1990 Election 201 Latin America 205 Chile: Salvador Allende and the Suspension of Democracy (1970-1973) 206 Honduras: The Constitutional Crisis and Presidential Election of 1985 209 Mexico: The Rise and Fall of the National Revolutionary Party (1929-2000) 211 CHAPTER SEVEN How Effective Have Political Posters Been? 221 CHAPTER EIGHT Conclusions and Future Trends 231 Conclusions 236 Political poster propaganda is designed to elicit emotional reactions 236 Image management is important in election posters 237 Themes are emphasized in election posters 239 Legislation affects the use ofposters, billboards, and banners in election campaigns 240 Election campaign posters are much utilized in countries where literacy is relatively low 241 Technological developments and artistic trends influence election posters and their use 241 Mass produced, high quality, pictorial posters are often part of election campaign packages 242