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Chapter One THE DISCOVERIES OF STONE AGE SITES AND TOOLS, C. 1860-C.1950 1 The Beginning * The Discoveries, c.1860-c.1900 • The Discoveries, c.1900-c.1950 * The Significance of Indian Prehistoric Research in the Second Half of the 19th Century Chapter Two HOMINID FOSSILS, EARLIEST STONE TOOLS, AND INDIA IN THE CURRENT SCHEME OF HUMAN EVOLUTION 10 Chapter Three PALAEOLITHIC SITES, SEQUENCES, AND MATERIALS 24 Baluchistan • Sind - Northwestern Frontier - The Himalayan and Sub-Himalayan Areas: Kashmir, Ladakh, Jammu, Himachal Pradesh and (Indian) Punjab - Delhi and Haryana - Rajasthan - Gujarat Madhya Pradesh * Chhattisgarh • Maharashtra * Goa and Karnataka * Kerala and Tamil Nadu - Andhra Pradesh * Orissa - West Bengal * Tripura, Assam and the Other Northeastern Areas: Arunachal, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, and Meghalaya ' Bangladesh ° Jharkhand • Bihar • Uttar Pradesh • Nepal Chapter Four PALAEOLITHIC INDIA 67 A SUMMATION OF HISTORICAL KNOWLEDGE Iack of Cultural Evidence • Early Pleistocene Beginning • Hominid/Human Fossil Finds * Environment • The Sequence and Industries • Chronology • Elements of Cognitive Behaviour - General Pattern of Life Chapter Five THE MESOLITHIC EVIDENCE 80 Microliths in the Pleistocene Bracket - Microliths Associated with the Evidence of Animal Domestication - Excavated Early Mesolithic Sites with Habitational Evidence • General Observations on the Indian Mesolithic - Associated Rock Art Chapter Six PROBLEM OF THE BEGINNING OF FOOD PRODUCTION IN INDIA AND THE EVIDENCE FROM MEHRGARH 104 Complexity of the Problem * Evidence from Mehrgarh Chapter Seven BEYOND MEHRGARH 115 THE GROWTH OF VILLAGES FROM BALUCHISTAN TO WESTERN UTTAR PRADESH AND GUJARAT The Problem of Climate * Baluchistan beyond Mehrgarh • Mountainous Rim in the Northwest: Bannu Western Fringe of the Indus-Hakra Alluvium: Gomal Valley • Western Fringe of the Indus-Hakra Alluvium: Kirthar Piedmont and Kohistan • Western Fringe of the Indus-Hakra Alluvium: Potwar Plateau - The Indus-Hakra Plain Gujarat • The Emerging Picture Chapter Eight ORIGIN AND CHRONOLOGY OF THE HARAPPAN OR INDUS CIVILIZATION 136 Chapter Nine DISTRIBUTION AND MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF MATURE HARAPPAN SETTLEMENTS 147 Northeast Afghanistan Baluchistan Sind Cholistan - Pakistani Punjab Rajasthan, Indian Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh • Gujarat • Planning and Distribution of Harappan Sites Chapter Ten ASPECTS OF THE INDUS CIVILIZATION 169 Agriculture and Animal Husbandry * Internal Trade - External Trade * Metals • Pottery * Miscellaneous Crafts * Seals and Writing • Weights and Linear Measurements * Social and Political Framework - Religion * Burials and Skeletal Biology * Indus Art Chapter Eleven LATE HARAPPAN PHASE AND THE LEGACY OF THE INDUS CIVILIZATION 201 Theories Regarding the End of the Indus Civilization • Concept of the Late Harappan SContext and Features of the Late Harappan • Legacy of the Indus Civilization Chapter Twelve BEGINNING OF RICE AGRICULTURE IN THE CENTRAL GANGA PLAIN AND OTHER ISSUES 213 Introduction - A Hoabinhian Assemblage in the Northeast? - Beginning of Rice Cultivation in the Ganga Plain Chapter Thirteen NEOLITHIC-CHALCOLITHIC CULTURES OUTSIDE THE HARAPPAN ORBIT 219 The Mountains in the North: From Baluchistan to the Almorah Hills - The Aravallis - Madhya Pradesh SMaharashtra South Indian Neolithic and Chalcolithic: The Evidence from Andhra, Karnataka Orissa - The Northeastern States - West Bengal * Jharkhand and Bihar w Uttar Pradesh - Upper Ganga Valley 'Copper Hoards' Haryana, Punjab, Jammu • Observations on Neolithic-Chalcolithic Communities Outside the Harappan Distribution Area Chapter Fourteen THE BEGINNING OF IRON 287 The Northwest * Kashmir - Southeast Rajasthan • Malwa - South Indian Megaliths - West Bengal and Bihar - Uttar Pradesh • Observations Chapter Fifteen THE FOUNDATIONS OF EARLY HISTORIC INDIA 303 Base of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry - Settlement Contexts - Crafts and Industries - Ritual Beliefs and Practices * Interaction between Different Areas * Political System Chapter Sixteen BEGINNING OF EARLY HISTORIC INDIA 311 CHRONOLOGY, ANCIENT GEOGRAPHICAL UNITS, AND GEO-POLITICAL ORBITS Chronology * Ancient Geographical Units - Geo-Political Orbits Chapter Seventeen EARLY HISTORIC CITIES 322 Indo-Gangetic Alluvial Plain from Assam and Bengal to Sind - The Sub-Himalayan and Himalayan Belt - To the South of the Indo-Gangetic Alluvial Plain * Observations Chapter Eighteen THE MATERIAL BASIS OF LIFE 349 SETTLEMENTS, TECHNOLOGY, AGRICULTURE, AND TRADE Settlements - Technology Agriculture - Trade and Trade Routes Chapter Nineteen ART AND ARCHITECTURE 374 Introduction • Mauryan Art and Architecture * Early Indian Narrative Art: Bharhut, Sanchi, Bodh Gaya (2nd-1 st century BC) - Sculptural Tradition of the Early Rock-cut Caves of East and West India Andhra School of Sculpture Art of Mathura * Gandhara Art - Art of the Gupta Period • Early Indian Painting * Development of Buddhist Architecture: Chaitya-grihas, Stupas, and Viharas • Temple Architecture Terracottas Chapter Twenty INSCRIPTIONS, COINS, RELIGIONS 408 Chapter Twenty-one MULTIPLE AND SHIFTING CENTRES OF POWER, AD C.7TH-C.13TH CENTURIES 424 Political Kaleidoscope * Economic Underpinnings Chapter Twenty-two SETTLEMENTS, IRRIGATION, TECHNOLOGY, TRADE 435 Chapter Twenty-three INSCRIPTIONS AND COINS 446 Chapter Twenty-four TEMPLES, MONASTERIES, SCULPTURE, AND PAINTING 459 Chapter Twenty-five ARCHAEOLOGY OF INDIA 474 A GENERAL PERSPECTIVE Scope of the Volume s Imporjance of Archaeology in Indian Historical Studies * Palaeolithic and Related Research ° Mesolithic Situation - Agricultural Beginnings * Early Harappan Tradition - Mature Harappan Universe * Late Harappan Phenomenon • Beyond the Harappan Orbit * Historical Period till AD 6th Century * Early Medieval Context (7th-13th Centuries) APPENDICES 504 I Archaeology of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadveep and Minicoy * II History of Indian Archaeology - III Conservation • IV The Aryan I ssue * V Some Recent Developments (2005-6)