Table of contents for Elimination of TRIMs, the experience of selected developing countries / United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.


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I.    Implications of the elimination of TRIMs: A summary ....................................................... 1
A.   The TRIMs Agreement           ............ ............................... 1
B.   C ase  study  findings  .................... ............. .................................. ..................... 5
C .  C onclusions  ..................................................    ...........................
II.   A rgen tin a  ................................................................................................................ ...   13
A .  Introduction  ................... .. ......... ...........   ........ ........ ...........  13
B.   Regulatory framework and recent trends in FDI ........................             13
1.   Legal framework ..................         ..........................         13
2.    Recent trends in FDI inflows ................................... 14
C.   Argentina's TRIMs notifications ................................... 16
D.   The automotive regime and the MERCOSUR automotive policy .............................. 18
1.   The automotive regime ............     ............................. 18
2.   The MERCOSUR automotive policy............................. ...................... 21
E.   The automotive industry in Argentina ............................... 25
1.   Phase 1: Domestic demand-driven boom (1991-1994) .........    .......................... 27
2.    Phase 2: Outward led-growth (1995-1998)....................... ................... 27
3.    Phase 3: Recession and adjustment (1999-2002) ........................ ................... 29
4.    After the crisis ........................................ .........  . .............30
F.   Assessing the impact of the TRIMs phase-out....................     ............... 30
G .  C on clu sio n s  .......................................................................................   .....................  35
III.  M exico  ........................................................................................................................... 3 9
A .   Introd uction  .................  .... ...................................................................................... 39
B.   The Mexican regulatory framework ................................. 39
1.   Impacts of the use of TRIMs in industrial policies in Mexico ...............   39
2.    Policies towards foreign investment and FDI inflows ..................................... 41
C.   TRIMs notifications made by Mexico ................................ 45
D.   TRIMs impact assessment: the case of the automotive industry..............................49
1.   Historical perspective ....................               ......  ....................49
2.   Trade implications............................             ......................... 52
3.   Foreign investment implications ......................................... 54
4.    TRIMs and their elimination ...... ..........    ...................... 57
5.    Substitute policy measures for TRIMs..................       ................. 59
E .  C onclusions  ................................... ............. ................. .... .......................................  61
Annex to chapter III. TRIMs in the pharmaceutical and electronics industries ............. 63
IV .  P a k ista n  .................................................................................................................................. 6 9
A .  Introduction  .............................................................................. ...... ..........................   69
B.   Investment policies and the regulatory framework ............................................... 70
C.   FDI trends and sectoral distribution .......................................... 71
D.   Trade-related  investment measures in   Pakistan .....................................................  72
1.   Pakistan's commitments under the TRIMs Agreement ..................................... 74
2.   Pakistan's progress on the elimination of TRIMs .............................................. 75
E.   Automobile industry  and  elimination  of TRIM s....................................................  76
1.   Automotive production trends.......................................... 76
2.   Japanese investment in the Pakistani auto industry .....................................   78
3.   Policy  environm ent .......................................  ....................... 78
4.   The deletion programme and the TRIMs Agreement .....................................  80
5.   Future course for the auto industry in Pakistan................... ........ 81
F.   Summary and conclusions ........................................ 82
V .   P hilip pines  .................................................. ............ .. .................. 85
A .  Introd uction  ................................................................ ............................................  85
B.   ISI to EOI and the campaign for FDI ....................        ..................... 85
1.   The rise of ISI industries ............... ...... .... ....... .. ........................  85
2.   T he  shift  to  E O I...... ................. ............ .. ...... ...........................................  86
3.   Cam  paign  for FD I .................................. ...... ......................................... 88
4.   Brief assessment of the EOI-SAP  policy ........................................... ..... ... 90
C.   TRIMs, economic deregulation and the local content programme collapse ........ 91
1.   Philippine car assembly and the local content programme................................ 91
2.   CDP and the automotive liberalization/deregulation programme...................... 94
3.   The crisis of the automotive industry, 1997-98 to present..............................  96
D.   Political responses to  the TRIM s phase-out ...........................................................  98
1.   The  Senate  stand  ........................................  ........................ 99
2.   End  of the  local content programm e ..................................................................  99
3.   Auto workers' campaign against liberalization/deregulation .......................... 100
E.   Philippine car assembly and car parts production in a changing
Asian and global car market ............................................................... 101
1.   The changing Asian strategies of Japanese and other car makers ................... 101
2.   Rise of global parts producers and crisis of
domestic-oriented car parts makers................................................. 103
F.   Conclusions .............. .......     ............. .......     .................... 103
V I.  E thiopia ..................................................... ........................ .......... . . . . ...........  107
A .  Introduction  ..................... ........................................    107
B.   Ethiopian regulatory framework.........................       ...................  108
1.   Industries closed to FDI ........................................ 108
2.   Ownership limitations and requirements ........................................ 108
3.   Treatment of foreign investors and government incentives ............................. 109
C.   FDI performance ................................................................ 109
D.   The TRIMs Agreement and Ethiopia..................... .         ......................... 111
1.   Local content requirem ents .......................      . ........................ 111
2.   Trade-balancing  requirements..........................................  . 112
3.   Foreign  exchange  restrictions  ................................................................  ..... 112
4.   Export restrictions .......................................... 113
E.   Incidence of TRIMs: comparison with other African countries...................... 117
F.   C onclusions  .............................     ..... ......................... ..............  118
V II.  V iet  N am   ................................................................................................................ ....... 121
A .  Introduction  ................................................. ... .................  121
B.   Foreign investment in Viet Nam ........................................ 122
1.   General policies on foreign investment ......................................... 122
2.   Foreign  investm ent in  Viet Nam  ........................................................  123
C.   Trade-related investment measures in Viet Nam................................................. 124
1.   Regulations on localization and development of local raw materials ................. 124
2.   Regulations on foreign exchange and trade balancing..............................   127
3.   Restrictions on  imports ........................................           129
4.    Regulations on exports ....... .......................... ................... 130
D.   Impacts of TRIMs elimination on selected industries ......................................... 131
1.   Autom  obile  m anufacture  and  assem bly  .............................................................  131
2.   Motorcycle manufacture/assembly .................. ........................ 134
3.   Consumer electronic goods manufacture and assembly .................................. 136
4.   M  ilk  processing  ...............................................................................................  137
5.   Cane sugar processing ........................................ 138
6.   V egetable  oil processing  ...................................... ................ .......................  139
7.   Wood processing .................                       .   ............................ 140
E.   C onclusions  ..................................................... ................ .................. 141
A nnex  to  chapter  VII. Additional tables  ..................... ............................................... 143
R eferen ces  ..................................................................................................................... ............   147
Selected recent UNCTAD publications on FDI and TNCs ....................................     155
Q uestionnaire................ ....... ........                     .............. ...................  161



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures (1994)Investments, Foreign, International business enterprises, International trade, Agreement on Trade-related Investment Measures (1994), Entreprises multinationales, Investissements étrangers, Commerce international