Table of contents for The invisible hand of peace : capitalism, the war machine, and international relations theory / Patrick J. McDonald.


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1. American Grand Strategy and the Liberal Peace                 1
2. Liberal International Relations Theory on War                23
3. Releasing the Invisible Hand                                 50
4. Liberal Economic Institutions and Peace in the Twentieth
Century                                                      77
5. Free Trade and Peace in the First Era of Globalization      111
6. From Rivalry to Friendship                                  131
7. The Achilles' Heel of Liberal International Relations Theory?  185
8. Peace Across the Taiwan Strait?                             233
9. The Invisible Hand or the Ballot Box?                       264
10. Capitalism and America's Peaceful Market Power              284
2008037921
1   The development process: the main participators         4
1.1 Landowners                                         4
1.2  Private developers                                7
1.3  Public-sector and government agencies             8
1.4  Planners                                          9
1.5  Financial institutions                           10
1.6 Agents                                            10
1.7  Building contractors                             11
1.8  Project design and development team              11
1.9  Objectors                                        18
1.10 Occupiers                                        19
2    Sources of finance                                     21
2.1 Insurance companies and pension funds             21
2.2  Banks                                            22
2.3  Private person                                   23
2.4  Building societies                               23
2.5  Government and EC funding                        23
3    Valuation and development appraisal                    25
3.1 Introduction                                      25
3.2  Cost elements                                    26
3.3  Development valuation techniques                 34
3.4  Risk analysis and sensitivity analysis           39
3.5  Mathematics of valuation                         42
4    Introduction to design economics                       47
4.1 RIBA Plan of Work                                 47
4.2  Factors affecting the cost of the building       49
5   Approximate estimating                                  55
5.1 Introduction                                      55
5.2  Methods                                          55
5.3  Functional unit method                           56
5.4  Superficial area method                          56
5.5  Elemental cost plan                              57
5.6 Approximate quantities techniques                 57
6   Whole-life costing and life-cycle assessment            61
6.1 Definitions                                       61
6.2 Introduction                                      61
6.3  Cost centres                                     63
6.4 Period of analysis                                63
6.5  Factors affecting life expectancy                64
6.6  Data for whole-life costing                      67
6.7 Issues to be considered at the design stage for whole-life
costing                                          68
6.8 Is whole-life costing effective?                  72
6.9  Life-cycle assessment                            73
6.10 Whole building environmental assessment          74
6.11 The future and sustainable building development  76
7   Value management or engineering                         78
7.1 Introduction                                      78
7.2  Functional performance                           79
7.3  Methodology or sequence of events                80
7.4  When valuation engineering should be applied     84
7.5  Functional analysis method                       84
7.6  Function cluster groups                          85
8    Procurement methods and types of contract              88
8.1 Traditional methods of procurement                89
8.2  Design and build                                 91
8.3  Construction management                          92
8.4  Management contracting                           94
8.5  Partnering                                       94
8.6 Alliancing                                        97
8.7  Private-Public Partnerships and Private Finance Initiatives 98
8.8 Prime costing                                     98
8.9  ProCure21                                        99
8.10 Apportioning risk                               100
9    Standard Method of Measurement and bills of quantities  102
9.1 Introduction                                     102
9.2  The Standard Method of Measurement              102
9.3  Composition of SMM7                             103
9.4  Preliminaries                                   105
9.5  Preliminaries classification expounded          106
9.6 The bills of quantities                          122
10  Estimating and tendering procedures                    125
10.1 Introduction                                     125
10.2 Selection and invitation to tender               127
10.3  Tender documentation                            128
10.4  The decision to tender                          129
10.5  Managing the estimating process                 131
10.6  Completing the bills                            134
10.7  Building up the costs of an item                134
10.8  Calculating labour costs                        135
10.9  Building up material rates                      144
10.10 Cost of plant                                   148
10.11 Calculating and pricing unit rates              151
10.12 Costing the preliminaries                       151
10.13 Sub-contractors' and suppliers' quotations      164
10.14 Selection and invitation to tender - sub-contractors  169
10.15 Opening of tenders                              170
10.16 Suppliers' quotations                           172
10.17 Method statements                               173
10.18 Tender programme                                175
10.19 Cash flow                                       176
10.20 Overheads and profit                            176
10.21 Bringing the tender information together for final
review                                          180
10.22 Final review meeting                            183
10.23 Final adjustments and submitting the tender documents  185
10.24 Vetting of tenders                              187
10.25 Risk and uncertainty in estimating              188
10.26 Computerised estimating                         190
11   Bidding strategy                                       194
11.1 Introduction                                      194
11.2  Comparisons with competitors                     195
11.3  The accuracy of the estimate                     196
11.4  The number of competitors                        198
11.5  Summary                                          199
12   Purchasing                                             200
12.1 Introduction                                      200
12.2  Ethics                                           200
12.3  Fair price                                       203
12.4  Procedures for procuring suppliers and sub-contractors  204
12.5  Preferred suppliers and sub-contractors          204
12.6  Supply chain management                          205
13   Post-contract cost control                             206
13.1 Introduction                                      206
13.2  Pareto's Law                                     206
13.3  The basic needs of a cost-control system for the
contractor and client                            207
13.4  Cash flow                                        208
13.5  S-curve                                          209
13.6  Further refinements                              209
13.7  Monitoring using the S-curve                     211
13.8  Saw-tooth diagram                                211
13.9  Bad practices                                    212
14  Interim valuations, claims and variations               214
14.1 Introduction to interim valuations                214
14.2  Sums subject to retention                        214
14.3  Sums not subject to retention                    215
14.4  Materials on site                                216
14.5  Off-site materials                               216
14.6 Introduction to claims                            216
14.7  Extension of time                                217
14.8  Cost centres for claims                          217
14.9 Introduction to variations                        221
14.10 Example calculations                             222



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: War Economic aspects, Peace Economic aspects, Capitalism, International relations