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Why Consider Opposing Viewpoints? 11 Introduction 14 Chapter 1: How Can Safety and Comfort During Childbirth Be Assured? Chapter Preface 19 1. Epidurals Are Safe for the Management 21 of Pain During Childbirth Kathryn J. Alexander 2. Epidurals During Labor Are Not Safe 30 for the Mother and Baby Sarah J. Buckley 3. Episiotomies Are Sometimes Prudent 40 Gerard M. DiLeo 4. Episiotomies Are Not Necessary 47 Beth Howard 5. Cesarean Deliveries Are Safe and 54 Frequently Necessary Tiffanie Darke 6. Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Birth (VBAC) 60 Is Not Safe for All Women Melissa M. Kaczmarczyk, Par Sparen, Paul Terry, Sven Cnattingius Periodical Bibliography 69 Chapter 2: What Are the Best Conditions for Childbirth? Chapter Preface 71 1. Women Should Be Given Choices About 73 Where to Give Birth Cynthia Overgard 2. Focusing on Choices About Where to Give 80 Birth Detracts from the Purpose of Childbirth Margaret McCartney 3. Home Births Are Safe 85 Janelle Weiner 4. Home Births Are Not Safe for Some Women 92 Catherine Bennett 5. Hospital Births Can Be Safe 97 William Camann and Kathryn Alexander 6. Hospital Births Involve Unnecessary 103 and Unsafe Procedures Yvonne Cryns Periodical Bibliography 110 Chapter 3: How Can Rights and Preferences Be Honored During Childbirth? Chapter Preface 112 1. Childbearing Women Have Rights 114 Childbirth Connection 2. Fetal Monitoring During Labor Can Prevent 120 Cerebral Palsy and Therefore Should Be Used Howard A. Janet 3. Fetal Monitoring During Labor Cannot Prevent 128 Cerebral Palsy and Therefore Should Not Be Used Michael F. Greene 4. Birth Plans Can Improve the 134 Childbirth Experience Judith Lothian 5. Birth Plans Do Not Improve the 145 Childbirth Experience Ingela Lundgren, Marie Berg, and Ginilla Lindmark 6. Women Have the Right to Elective Cesareans 154 Mary E. Hannah 7. Elective Cesareans Should Not Be 161 Performed Routinely Kathi Carlisle Fountain and Kristen Suthers Periodical Bibliography 168 Chapter 4: Who Should Assist and Be Present During Childbirth? Chapter Preface 170 1. Doulas Can Be Helpful 172 During Childbirth Kristen Davenport 2. Doulas Can Be Too Controlling 178 During Childbirth Lucy Freeman 3. Midwives Are a Good Choice for 183 Some Women Jon Marshall 4. Fathers Should Be Present 189 During Childbirth Fatherhood Institute 5. Fathers Should Not Be Present 194 During Childbirth Sandra Dick 6. Grandmothers Can Be Helpful 199 During Childbirth Carolynn Bauer Zorn 7. Grandmothers Are Not Helpful 205 During Childbirth Rebecca Eckler Periodical Bibliography 210 For Further Discussion 211 Organizations to Contact 214 Bibliography of Books 220