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1 Atomic structure 1 1.1 Ground state of phosphorus 1 1.2 Exchange interaction 7 1.3 Spin-orbit interaction 10 1.4 Hyperfine structure and Zeeman effect in hydrogen 13 1.5 Hydrogenic ions 18 1.6 Geonium 21 1.7 The Thomas-Fermi model (T) 30 1.8 Electrons in a shell 33 1.9 Isotope shifts and the King plot 37 1.10 Crude model of a negative ion 41 1.11 Hyperfine-interaction-induced mixing of states of different J 42 1.12 Electron density inside the nucleus (T) 46 1.13 Parity nonconservation in atoms 51 1.14 Parity nonconservation in anti-atoms 61 1.15 The anapole moment (T) 65 2 Atoms in external fields 75 2.1 Electric polarizability of the hydrogen ground state 75 2.2 Polarizabilities for highly excited atomic states 78 2.3 Using Stark shifts to measure electric fields 79 2.4 Larmor precession frequencies for alkali atoms 81 2.5 Magnetic field inside a magnetized sphere 84 2.6 Classical model of magnetic resonance 85 2.7 Energy level shifts due to oscillating fields (T) 90 2.8 Spin relaxation due to magnetic field inhomogeneity 102 2.9 The f x iż effect in vapor cells 107 2.10 Field ionization of hydrogenic ions 110 2.11 Electric-field shifts of magnetically split Zeeman sublevels 110 2.12 Geometric (Berry's) phase 112 2.13 Nuclear dipole-dipole relaxation 116 2.14 Magnetic spin precession of a free magnet 118 3 Interaction of atoms with light 121 3.1 Two-level system under periodic perturbation (T) 121 3.2 Quantization of the electromagnetic field (T) 128 3.3 Emission of light by atoms (T) 134 3.4 Absorption of light by atoms 144 3.5 Resonant absorption cross-section 147 3.6 Absorption cross-section for a Doppler-broadened line 149 3.7 Saturation parameters (T) 151 3.8 Angular distribution and polarization of atomic fluorescence 158 3.9 Change in absorption due to optical pumping 162 3.10 Optical pumping and the density matrix 168 3.11 Cascade decay 172 3.12 Coherent laser excitation 175 3.13 Transit-time broadening 176 3.14 A quiz on fluorescence and light scattering 179 3.15 Two-photon transition probability 183 3.16 Vanishing Raman scattering 185 3.17 Excitation of atoms by off-resonant laser pulses 187 3.18 Hyperfine-interaction-induced magnetic dipole (Ml) transi- tions 190 3.19 Transitions with unresolved hyperfine structure 193 3.20 Optical pumping and quantum beats in Mercury 195 3.21 Thomson scattering 199 3.22 Classical model for a magnetic-dipole transition 201 3.23 Nonlinear three-wave mixing in isotropic chiral media 204 3.24 A negatively refracting atomic vapor? 207 3.25 Light propagation in anisotropic crystals 212 3.26 Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) 215 4 Interaction of light with atoms in external fields 223 4.1 Resonant Faraday rotation 223 4.2 Kerr effect in an atomic medium 227 4.3 The Hanle effect 233 4.4 Electric-field-induced decay of the hydrogen 2 2S1/2 state 236 4.5 Stark-induced transitions (T) 238 4.6 Magnetic deflection of light 244 4.7 Classical model of an optical-pumping magnetometer 249 4.8 Searches for permanent electric dipole moments (T) 253 4.9 Sensitivity to electric dipole moments 264 4.10 Absorption, dispersion, optical rotation, and induced elliptic- ity 267 4.11 Optical rotation in a gas of polarized neutrons 270 5 Atomic collisions 273 5.1 Collisions in a buffer gas 273 5.2 Spectral line broadening due to phase diffusion 274 5.3 Dicke narrowing 277 5.4 Basic concepts in spin exchange 281 5.5 The spin-temperature limit 285 5.6 Electron-randomization collisions 287 5.7 Larmor precession under conditions of rapid spin exchange 288 5.8 Penning ionization of metastable helium atoms 290 6 Cold atoms 295 6.1 Laser cooling: basic ideas (T) 295 6.2 Magneto-optical traps 302 6.3 Zeeman slower 306 6.4 Bose-Einstein condensation (T) 311 6.5 Bose-Einstein condensation from an optical lattice 322 6.6 Cavity cooling 324 6.7 Cavity cooling for many particles: stochastic cooling 329 6.8 Fermi energy for a harmonic trap 331 7 Molecules 335 7.1 Amplitude of molecular vibrations 335 7.2 Vibrational constants for the Morse potential 336 7.3 Centrifugal distortion 338 7.4 Relative densities of atoms and molecules in a vapor 341 7.5 Isotope shifts in molecular transitions 346 7.6 Electric dipole moments of polar molecules 351 7.7 Scalar coupling of nuclear spins in molecules 355 7.8 Zeeman effect in diatomic molecules 359 7.9 Omega-type doubling 363 8 Experimental methods 367 8.1 Reflection of light from a moving mirror 367 8.2 Laser heating of a small particle 369 8.3 Spectrum of frequency-modulated light 372 8.4 Frequency doubling of modulated light 374 8.5 Ring-down of a detuned cavity 376 8.6 Transmission through a light guide 377 8.7 Quantum fluctuations in light fields 3;78 8.8 Noise of a beamsplitter 382 8.9 Photon shot noise in polarimetry 384 8.10 Light-polarization control with a variable retarder 386 8.11 Pile-up in photon counting 390 8.12 Photons per mode in a laser beam 391 8.13 Tuning dye lasers 392 8.14 Matter-wave vs. optical Sagnac gyroscopes 395 8.15 Femtosecond laser pulses and frequency combs 398 8.16 Magnetic field fluctuations due to random thermal currents 403 8.17 Photodiodes and circuits (T) 406 9 Miscellaneous topics 415 9.1 Precession of a compass needle? 415 9.2 Ultracold neutron polarizer 417 9.3 Exponentially growing/decaying harmonic field 418 9.4 The magic angle 420 9.5 Understanding a Clebsch-Gordan coefficient selection rule 426 9.6 The Kapitsa pendulum 428 9.7 Visualization of atomic polarization 431 9.8 Estimate of elasticity and tensile strength of materials 4.38 9.9 The Casimir force 440 A Units, conversion factors, and typical values 443 B Reference data for hydrogen and alkali atoms 449 C Spectroscopic notation for atoms and diatomic molecules 451 D Description of polarization states of light 455 D. 1 The Stokes parameters 455 D.2 The Jones calculus 456 E Euler angles and rotation matrices 459

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