Table of contents for Atomic physics : an exploration through problems and solutions / Dmitry Budker, Derek F. Kimball, David P. DeMille.


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1   Atomic structure                                                1
1.1  Ground state of phosphorus                                  1
1.2  Exchange interaction                                        7
1.3  Spin-orbit interaction                                     10
1.4  Hyperfine structure and Zeeman effect in hydrogen          13
1.5  Hydrogenic ions                                            18
1.6  Geonium                                                    21
1.7  The Thomas-Fermi model (T)                                30
1.8  Electrons in a shell                                       33
1.9  Isotope shifts and the King plot                           37
1.10 Crude model of a negative ion                             41
1.11 Hyperfine-interaction-induced mixing of states of different J  42
1.12 Electron density inside the nucleus (T)                   46
1.13 Parity nonconservation in atoms                            51
1.14 Parity nonconservation in anti-atoms                      61
1.15 The anapole moment (T)                                    65
2   Atoms in external fields                                       75
2.1  Electric polarizability of the hydrogen ground state       75
2.2  Polarizabilities for highly excited atomic states          78
2.3  Using Stark shifts to measure electric fields              79
2.4  Larmor precession frequencies for alkali atoms             81
2.5  Magnetic field inside a magnetized sphere                  84
2.6   Classical model of magnetic resonance                     85
2.7  Energy level shifts due to oscillating fields (T)          90
2.8  Spin relaxation due to magnetic field inhomogeneity       102
2.9  The f x iż effect in vapor cells                          107
2.10 Field ionization of hydrogenic ions                       110
2.11 Electric-field shifts of magnetically split Zeeman sublevels  110
2.12 Geometric (Berry's) phase                               112
2.13 Nuclear dipole-dipole relaxation                        116
2.14 Magnetic spin precession of a free magnet               118
3   Interaction of atoms with light                              121
3.1  Two-level system under periodic perturbation (T)        121
3.2  Quantization of the electromagnetic field (T)           128
3.3  Emission of light by atoms (T)                          134
3.4  Absorption of light by atoms                            144
3.5  Resonant absorption cross-section                       147
3.6  Absorption cross-section for a Doppler-broadened line   149
3.7  Saturation parameters (T)                               151
3.8  Angular distribution and polarization of atomic fluorescence  158
3.9  Change in absorption due to optical pumping             162
3.10 Optical pumping and the density matrix                  168
3.11 Cascade decay                                           172
3.12 Coherent laser excitation                               175
3.13 Transit-time broadening                                 176
3.14 A quiz on fluorescence and light scattering             179
3.15 Two-photon transition probability                       183
3.16 Vanishing Raman scattering                              185
3.17 Excitation of atoms by off-resonant laser pulses        187
3.18 Hyperfine-interaction-induced magnetic dipole (Ml) transi-
tions                                                   190
3.19 Transitions with unresolved hyperfine structure         193
3.20 Optical pumping and quantum beats in Mercury            195
3.21 Thomson scattering                                      199
3.22 Classical model for a magnetic-dipole transition        201
3.23 Nonlinear three-wave mixing in isotropic chiral media   204
3.24 A negatively refracting atomic vapor?                   207
3.25 Light propagation in anisotropic crystals               212
3.26 Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)          215
4   Interaction of light with atoms in external fields           223
4.1  Resonant Faraday rotation                               223
4.2  Kerr effect in an atomic medium                         227
4.3  The Hanle effect                                        233
4.4  Electric-field-induced decay of the hydrogen 2 2S1/2 state  236
4.5  Stark-induced transitions (T)                           238
4.6  Magnetic deflection of light                            244
4.7  Classical model of an optical-pumping magnetometer      249
4.8  Searches for permanent electric dipole moments (T)      253
4.9  Sensitivity to electric dipole moments                  264
4.10 Absorption, dispersion, optical rotation, and induced elliptic-
ity                                                     267
4.11 Optical rotation in a gas of polarized neutrons         270
5   Atomic collisions                                           273
5.1  Collisions in a buffer gas                              273
5.2  Spectral line broadening due to phase diffusion         274
5.3  Dicke narrowing                                         277
5.4  Basic concepts in spin exchange                         281
5.5  The spin-temperature limit                              285
5.6  Electron-randomization collisions                       287
5.7  Larmor precession under conditions of rapid spin exchange  288
5.8  Penning ionization of metastable helium atoms           290
6   Cold atoms                                                  295
6.1  Laser cooling: basic ideas (T)                          295
6.2  Magneto-optical traps                                   302
6.3  Zeeman slower                                           306
6.4  Bose-Einstein condensation (T)                          311
6.5  Bose-Einstein condensation from an optical lattice      322
6.6  Cavity cooling                                          324
6.7  Cavity cooling for many particles: stochastic cooling   329
6.8  Fermi energy for a harmonic trap                        331
7   Molecules                                                   335
7.1  Amplitude of molecular vibrations                       335
7.2  Vibrational constants for the Morse potential           336
7.3  Centrifugal distortion                                  338
7.4  Relative densities of atoms and molecules in a vapor    341
7.5  Isotope shifts in molecular transitions                 346
7.6  Electric dipole moments of polar molecules              351
7.7  Scalar coupling of nuclear spins in molecules           355
7.8  Zeeman effect in diatomic molecules                     359
7.9  Omega-type doubling                                     363
8   Experimental methods                                        367
8.1  Reflection of light from a moving mirror                367
8.2  Laser heating of a small particle                       369
8.3  Spectrum of frequency-modulated light                   372
8.4  Frequency doubling of modulated light                   374
8.5  Ring-down of a detuned cavity                           376
8.6  Transmission through a light guide                      377
8.7  Quantum fluctuations in light fields                   3;78
8.8  Noise of a beamsplitter                                 382
8.9  Photon shot noise in polarimetry                       384
8.10 Light-polarization control with a variable retarder    386
8.11 Pile-up in photon counting                              390
8.12 Photons per mode in a laser beam                        391
8.13 Tuning dye lasers                                      392
8.14 Matter-wave vs. optical Sagnac gyroscopes               395
8.15 Femtosecond laser pulses and frequency combs           398
8.16 Magnetic field fluctuations due to random thermal currents  403
8.17 Photodiodes and circuits (T)                           406
9   Miscellaneous topics                                        415
9.1  Precession of a compass needle?                         415
9.2  Ultracold neutron polarizer                            417
9.3  Exponentially growing/decaying harmonic field           418
9.4  The magic angle                                         420
9.5  Understanding a Clebsch-Gordan coefficient selection rule  426
9.6  The Kapitsa pendulum                                    428
9.7  Visualization of atomic polarization                    431
9.8  Estimate of elasticity and tensile strength of materials  4.38
9.9  The Casimir force                                      440
A   Units, conversion factors, and typical values               443
B   Reference data for hydrogen and alkali atoms                449
C   Spectroscopic notation for atoms and diatomic molecules     451
D   Description of polarization states of light                 455
D. 1 The Stokes parameters                                   455
D.2 The Jones calculus                                       456
E   Euler angles and rotation matrices                          459



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