Table of contents for The comment clause in English : syntactic origins and pragmatic development / Laurel J. Brinton.


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1  Introduction: comment clauses, parentheticals, and
pragmatic markers                                          1
1.1   Introduction                                         1
1.2   Sentence adverbial                                   2
1.3   Disjunct adverbial                                   4
1.4   Comment clause                                       4
1.5   Parenthetical                                        7
1.5.1   Definition of a parenthetical                7
1.5.2   Types of parentheticals                      9
1.5.3   Syntactic derivation of parentheticals      10
1.5.4   Distinguishing a parenthetical from a
main cause                                  12
1.6   Pragmatic marker                                    14
1.6.1   Functional characteristics of
pragmatic markers                           17
1.6.2   Comment clauses as
parentheticals/pragmatic markers            18
1.7   Overview of the book                                19
1.7.1   Approach                                    19
1.7.2   Sources of data                             19
1.7.3   Outline of the book                         21
2  Semantic and syntactic development of pragmatic markers   24
2.1   Introduction                                        24
2.2   Semantic development                                24
2.3   Syntactic development                               27
2.3.1   Adverb/preposition > conjunction >
pragmatic marker                           27
2.3.2   Clause-internal adverb > sentential
adverb > pragmatic marker                  31
2.3.3   Matrix clause > parenthetical
disjunct > pragmatic marker                35
2.4   Conclusion                                         47
3  Processes of change                                      49
3.1   Introduction                                       49
3.2   Grammaticalization                                49
3.2.1   Definition of grammaticalization           49
3.2.2   Pragmatic markers and grammaticalization   52
3.2.3   Studies of pragmatic markers as
grammaticalized forms                      55
3,3   Pragmaticalization                                 61
3.4   Lexicalization                                     63
3.4.1   Definition of lexicalization               63
3.4.2   Lexicalization and grammaticalization
compared                                   65
3.4.3   Studies of pragmatic markers as
lexicalized forms                          66
3.5   Idiomatization                                     69
3.6   Subjectification and intersubjectification         70
3.7   Conclusion                                        71
4  Comment clauses with say                                 73
4.1   Introduction                                       73
4.2   (I) sa), in Present-day English                    74
4.3   Comparison to like and what in Present-day
English                                            80
4.4   Historical development of (I) say                  82
4.4.1   Dating of forms                            82
4.4.2   The evolution of (I) sSay                  88
4.5   I daresay                                          93
4.5.1   I daresay) in Present-day English          93
4.5.2   The development of I daresay               95
4.6   (As) you say                                      97
4.6.1   (As) you say in Present-day English corpora  99
4.6.2   The development of (as) you say           100
4.7   That is (to say))                                104
4.7.1  7'hat is (to say) in Present-day English   104
4.7.2   The development of that is (to say)       105
4.8   Conclusion                                        109
5   mean                                              Ill
5.1  Introduction                                     111
5.2   I mean in Present-day English                   112
5.2.1  The frequency of I mean                  112
5.2.2  The meaning of I mean                    112
5.2.3  The form and distribution of Imean       118
5.3   Semantic-pragmatic functions of I mean from
a diachronic perspective                        118
5.3.1  Full meanings                            119
5.3.2  Metalinguistic/metacommunicative
meanings                                 120
5.3.3  Other meanings                           123
5.4   Syntactic development                           124
5.5   Semantic development                            127
5.6   Accounting for the development of I mean        130
5.7   Conclusion                                      131
6  Comment clauses with see                              133
6.1  Introduction                                     133
6.2   You see, as/so you see, and see in Present-day
English                                          133
6.2.1   You see                                 133
6.2.2  As/so you see                            136
6.2.3  See                                      139
6.3   History of as/so you see and you see            141
6.3.1  Old English                              142
6.3.2  Middle English                           142
6.3.3  Early Modern English                     145
6.3.4  Later developments                       148
6.4   History of see                                  148
6.5   Accounting for the development                  154
6.5.1  Comparison with 'you see' in Swedish     158
6.5.2  Grammaticalization                       159
6.6   Conclusion                                      160
7  Ifyou will and as it were                             162
7.1   Introduction                                    162
7.2  If/you will and as it were in Present-day English  162
7.2.1  Present-day English i(fyou will          163
7.2.2  Present-day English as it were           166
7.3   The rise of {fyiou will                         168
7.4   The rise of as it were                          171
7.5   Foreign influence                               175
7.6   Accounting for the development of if you will
and as it were                                  177
7.6.1   The development of ifyou will             177
7.6.2   The development of as it were             180
7.7   Conclusion                                        182
8  Comment clauses with look                               184
8.1   Introduction                                      184
8.2   Look and its variants in Present-day English      184
8.2.1   The meaning of pragmatic look-forms       185
8.2.2   Morphosyntactic origins of look-forms     187
8.3   The dating of look-forms                          188
8.3.1   Matrix look                               188
8.3.2   Parenthetical look you/ye/thee/thou > lookee  191
8.3.3   Parenthetical look ({here, now})          194
8.3.4   Univerbated lookit                        195
8.4   The development of look-forms                     196
8.4.1   Look (you)                                196
8.4.2   Lookit                                    197
8.5   Comparison to other sensory verbs                 199
8.6   The grammaticalization of look-forms              200
8.7   Conclusion                                        202
9  What's more and what else                               203
9.1   Introduction                                      203
9.2   What's more in Present-day English                203
9.2.1   The meaning of what's more                205
9.2.2   The synchronic development of what's more  205
9.3   The history of what's more and related
constructions                                     206
9.3.1   What's more                               206
9.3.2   Which is more                             208
9.3.3   What was more                             209
9.4   Accounting for the development of the what's
more construction                                 209
9.5   What else                                         211
9.5.1  VWhat else in Present-day English          211
9.5.2   The history of what else                  215
9.5.3   Historical relation of the what else forms  216
9.6   Conclusion                                        218
10  Epistemic/evidential parentheticals - Igather and Ifind  219
10.1 Introduction                                      219
10.2  Epistemic/evidential parentheticals              220
10.3  I gather                                         224
10.3.1  Frequency of I gather in Present-day English  224
10.3.2  Meaning/function of Igather in
Present-day English                       225
10.3.3  Rise of I gather                         228
10.4  Ifind                                            230
10.4.1  Frequency of I find in Present-day English  231
10.4.2  Meaning/function of find in
Present-day English                       232
10.4.3  Rise of Iind                             235
10.5  Grammaticalization                               237
10.6  Conclusion                                       238
11 Concluding remarks                                      240
11.1 Introduction                                      240
11.2  Background of the study                          240
11.2.1  Parenthetical pragmatic markers          240
11.2.2  Pragmatic markers and grammaticalization  241
11.2.3  Syntactic development of pragmatic markers  '245
11.3  Results of case studies                          249
11.3.1  Shortcomings of the matrix clause hypothesis  249
11.3.2  Other syntactic sources for comment clauses  251
11.4  Directions for future research                   253



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: English language Clauses, Historical linguistics