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1. Rwanda's mixed season of hope (July 1994-April 1995) 1 The immediate aftermath 1 The politics of national unity 7 Justice and the killings 10 Rwanda outside Rwanda: the world of the refugee camps 24 The international community's attitudes 29 2. From Kibeho to the attack on Zaire (April 1995-October 1996) 37 The Kibeho crisis 37 The collapse ofthe national unity government 42 The refigees and the Kivu cockpit 46 North Kivu: ethnicity and the land conflict 48 South Kivu: the Banyamulenge and the memories of 1965 51 The impact of the Rwandese refugees on the Kivus 53 The Burundi factor 59 General Kagame goes to war 67 3. The Congo basin, its interlopers, and its onlookers 73 Into the Zairian vortex 75 The interlopers 80 Sudanese and Ugandans 80 Far from the Great Lakes: the Angolan conflict 88 Standing by, trying to keep out: three uneasy onlookers 99 4. Winning a virtual war (September 1996-May 1997) 113 Rwanda in Zaire: from refugee crisis to international war 113 Laurent-D1sird Kabila and the birth of AFDL 113 The bogey of the multinational intervention force 116 The refugee exodus 121 The long walk into Kinshasa 126 War and diplomacy 126 The mining contracts: myths and realities 137 The fate of the refugees 143 5. Losing the real peace (May 1997-August 1998) 149 Kabila in power: a secretive and incoherent leadership 149 Diplomacy and the refugee issue 154 The economy: an ineffectual attempt at normalization 161 Between Luanda and Brazzaville: the DRC' volatile West African environment 167 The unquiet East: the Kivus and their neighbors 172 6. A continental war (August 1998-August 1999) 181 Commander Kabarebe 's failed Blitzkrieg 181 Heading for an African war 187 Kinshasa's friends: godfathers and discreet supporters 187 Kinshasa's foes 193 Fence-sitters and well-wishers 198 Fighting down to a stalemate 203 Behind and around the war: domestic politics, diplomacy and economics 209 The Lusaka "peace" charade 223 7. Sinking into the quagmire (August 1999-January 2001) 227 The war is dead, long live the war 227 The East: confused rebels in confused fighting 227 Westwards: the river wars 231 Rwanda drives south into Katanga 234 The shaky home fronts 235 The Congo: an elusive search for national dialogue while the economy collapses 235 Angola: the pressure begins to ease off 238 Zimbabwe: trying to make the war pay for itself 239 Rwanda and Uganda: the friendship grows violent 240 The international dimension: giving aid monitoring the looting, and waiting for MONUC 243 Mzee's assassination 249 8. Not with a bang but with a whimper: the war's confused ending (January 2001-December 2002) 257 Li 'lJoseph 's new political dispensation 257 Diplomacy slowly deconstructs the continental conflict 265 The actors start jockeying for position 265 Negotiations, national dialogue, and disarmament in competition 267 The South African breakthrough 269 The bumpy road toward a transitional government 274 7he economy: slowly crawling out of the abyss 277 The eastern sore: the continental conflict shrinks into sub-regional anarchy 280 9. From war to peace: Congolese transition and conflict deconstruction (January 2003-July 2007) 285 The conflict's lingering aftermath (January 2003-December 2004) 285 The peripheral actors drop off 285 Rwanda and Uganda refuse to give up 290 An attempt at violently upsetting the transition 296 Tottering forward in Kinshasa 300 Slouching toward Bethlehem: the transition slowly turns into reality (January 2005-November 2006) 303 The pre-electoral struggles 303 DDRRR, SSR, and assorted security headaches 305 The elections 309 The morning after syndrome (November 2006-July 2007) 315 The risk of internal political paralysis 315 The economy: donors, debts, and the Great Mining Robbery 316 The east refuses to heal 320 10. Groping for meaning: the "Congolese" conflict and the crisis of contemporary Africa 329 The war as an African phenomenon 330 The purely East African origins of the conflagration 330 Antigenocide, the myth of the "new leaders," and the spread of democracy in Africa: the world projects its own rationale on the situation 331 The "New Congo," between African renaissance and African imperialism 333 From crusading to looting: the "new leaders" age quickly 335 The war as seen by the outside world 338 What did all the diplomatic agitation actually achieve? 338 Moral indignation in lieu of political resolve 346 An attempt at a philosophical conclusion 358 Appendix I: Seth Sendashonga's Murder 365 Notes 369 Bibliography 469