Table of contents for ERP systems and organisational change : a socio-technical insight / Bernard Grabot, Anne Mayère, Isabelle Bazet, editors.


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1  The Mutual Influence of the Tool and the Organisation ...............................1
1.1  Introduction......................... ........... ................................  1
1.2  Integration Versus Communication ..................................   2
1.3  Unification Versus Interpretation .......................................  7
1.4  Alignment Versus Adaptability ......................................  8
1.5  New Developments in ERP Integration .......................................... 9
1.6  References........................... . ........................... 10
2  ERP Systems in the Extended Value Chain of the Food Industry.......... 13
2.1  Introduction........................................................ 13
2.2  Research  M ethodology .................................... . ....... ............... 15
2.3  Integrating the Extended Value Chain with ICT.................................. 16
2.3.1 Integrated Information Infrastructures...................... ....... 16
2.3.2 Information Infrastructures in the Extended Value Chain............ 16
2.4  The Food Industry as Extended Value Chain ..................................... 17
2.4.1 The Swedish Food Industry ..................................... 17
2.4.2  M ilk  Flow ..................................................... ................... ... 18
2.4.3 Pork Flow ..........................       ........................ 19
2.4.4  Sugar Flow ........................ .     ........................ 19
2.4.5  Pea  Flow ............................................................................   20
2.4.6 Retailers and Grocery Chains Information Flow.......................20
2.4.7 Summary ................................................. 21
2.5  Key Criteria for Integration Choices................. ............ 22
2.6  Conclusions..........................  . ............................23
2.7  References...........................  ...     ........................... 24
3  Integrative Technologies in the Workplace: Using Distributed Cognition
to Frame the Challenges Associated with their Implementation ............. 27
3.1  The Integrative Logic of ERP Systems............................... .......  27
3.2 Distributed Cognition: A Framework to Study Integrative
Technologies......................... . ........... . .........................29
3.3  Mutating Artefacts, Mutating Work: The Case of Billing Services in a
Hospital Environm ent.................................................. ..................... 31
3.3.1 Some Methodological Points of Reference and a Description
of the  V isited  Site ....................................... ...............................   31
3.3.2 The Computerisation of Account Billing: The Evolution of
Documents and  of Clerical W ork.......................... ...................... 32
3.4  From Paper to Screen: Analysing the Change that Organisational
Members Experienced..........................................................   37
3.4.1 Articulating Regularities Within the Artefacts Themselves......... 37
3.5  The Contribution of Distributed Cognition to the Study of Integrative
Technologies in the W orkplace ....................................... .........   42
3.5.1 The Nature of Regularities Circulating in Artefacts Used in the
W orkplace ................................................. ...................   42
3.5.2  The Syntactic Organisation of Regularities Within Integrative
Technologies ....................................................................   43
3.5.3 Artefacts and Situations Are Mutually Defined Through Human
Decisions................................................. 44
3.6  References....................................................45
4  ERP Implementation: the Question of Global Control
Versus Local Efficiency ......................... .  .......................... 47
4.1  Introduction....................................................... 47
4.2  ERP and Information Production Design............................... ...48
4.2.1  The "Scientific Organisation of Labour" Applied to "Ordinary"
Information and Knowledge ..................................... ...... 48
4.2.2  A Focus on Information which Can Be Formalised, and on Basic
Exchange of Information ........ ........................................................ 48
4.2.3  Logic Priorities and Questions of Sense-making....................... 50
4.2.4  Inter-changeability of Information Producers............................ 51
4.3  ERP Combined with Business Process Re-engineering and Business
Process Outsourcing: Re-designing the Organisation While Transforming
its Information  System  .......................................... ...............  51
4.3.1  Value-adding Versus Non-value-adding Activities ...................... 51
4.3.2 Re-engineering, Outsourcing, and the Robustness of Information
Processes ...................................................... ....................   52
4.4  Contradictory Dynamics Relying on Local Employees and on Project
T eam s  ............................ ................................................  ... 53
4.4.1 Project Teams Dealing with Local Versus Global Contradictory
D ynam ics ........................................ ............ ...........................  53
4.4.2 The Selection of "Expert Users"............................... ....... 53
4.4.3 The "Expert Users": the Gap Between First Hopes and Final
Results  .......................................................... 54
4.5  Back to the Definition of Information and Knowledge Associated
with  ERPDesign ........................................................   55
4.5.1 Knowledge Management Renewed Through ERP Projects........... 55
4.5.2 The Need for Going Back to Definition: Data, Information and
Knowledge ...............................  ....... ............... 56
4.6  Conclusion  ......................................  .................... 56
4.7  References................       ..............  .............   57
5  Why ERPs Disappoint: the Importance of Getting the Organisational
Text Right ........................................  ... ............ 59
5.1  Introduction... ................................................................................  59
5.2  What Is an Organisation (and What Is Its Basis in Communication)?..... 64
5.3. The Case Study .................................................... 66
5.4  A  Reconciliation  of Texts? ......................................... ............ 72
5.4.1 Are Conversation and Text Different Modalities of
Communication, or Merely Different Perspectives on it?.......... 73
5.4.2  Buying, Procuring or Purchasing? Whose Categories? ............. 74
5.4.3  The Organisation as Text................................ 78
5.4.4  The Role of Conversation......................... .................. 81
5.5  Conclusion .......................... ......................... 82
5.6  References...................................................... 83
6  Contradictions and the Appropriation of ERP Packages....................... 85
6.1  Introduction....................................................   85
6.2  Views of Information and Communications Technology Appropriation
Processes................................................................................. 86
6.3  Coping with Contradictions and ERP Packages ...................................... 88
6.3.1 The Idealisation of ERP Packages ......................................  89
6.3.2  The Myth of the Perfect ERP Service................................  90
6.3.3  Contradictions and Relevant Social Groups .............................. 91
6.4  Discussion........................... ...        .......................... 92
6.5  Conclusion ........................... .         ......................... 95
6.6  R eferences........................................................................................   96
7  Exploring Functional Legitimacy Within Organisations:
Lessons to Be Learnt from Suchman's Typology.
The Case of the Purchasing Function and SAP Implementation ............ 101
7.1  Introduction: Revisiting Weber's Bureaucratic Organisation.
Challenging the Power of Functions and Their Quest for Legitimacy
W ithin Organisations............................                101
7.2  Suchman's Contribution and Suchman's Typology in the Debate
on the Nature of Legitimacy..............................       103
7.2.1 Suchman's Theoretical Framework and his Definition
of Legitimacy ......................................      103
7.2.2 The Contribution of Suchman's Typology to the Understanding
of the Concept of Legitimacy ......................................   107
7.3  Putting Suchman's Typology into Practice: an Analysis of the
Legitimisation Process of a Purchasing Department During the
Implementation  of an ERP  System....................................................  109
7.3.1 Presentation of the Case Study ........................................ 109
7.3.2  Application of Suchman's Typology and Discussion.............. 113
7.4  References............................ ....        ..................   116
8  How to Take into Account the Intuitive Behaviour of the Organisations
in the ERP?............................................. 119
8.1  The Enterprise: a Complex Mix of Various Trades Organised
in Business Processes ........................................ 119
8.2  Enterprise Resource Planning to Support Business Processes ............ 121
8.3   EDME Company: a Real Industrial Example ..................................... 122
8.4 Which Requirements for Business Processes in a Changing
Environment?.......................................             125
8.5  Autonomy and Competition: the Performance Weight....................... 127
8.6   Towards a Tool to Manage the Decision Processes Environment ......... 129
8.7  How to Transform Authority in Performance Drivers ........................... 132
8.8  How to Take into Account the Intuitive Behaviour of the
Organisations in the ERP? ........................... ...................... 133
8.9  References...........................                       ..... 136
9 Process Alignment or ERP Customisation: Is There a Unique Answer?. 139
9.1  Introduction.............................                        139
9.2   The ERP as a Tool for Change Management...........................   140
9.2.1 Process Re-engineering, Change Management and Industrial
Culture  ........................................               141
9.2.2  Global Versus Local Performance...........................  142
9.2.3 Interaction with the ERP Package .....................................   143
9.3   ERP Implementation and Business Process Alignment...................... 144
9.3.1 The Problem of Business Process Alignment.......................... 144
9.3.2 Industrial Problems Linked to Alignment ............................... 146
9.4  Customisation of the ERP Package..............................   148
9.4.1 Parameterisation, Configuration and Customisation ............... 148
9.4.2 Customisation as a Means to Adapt the System to Specific
Requirements .....................................        150
9.5  Can Standard Processes or Customisation Bring a Competitive
Advantage?   ........................................   ............ . 152
9.6  Conclusion  ............................................. ........... ...... 154
9.7  References...............................                    ........   154
10 Process Alignment Maturity in Changing Organisations ...................... 157
10.1 Introduction.............................                        157
10.2 ERP: After the Project, the Post-project .....................................   158
10.2.1 The "Post-project" Phase in Academic Literature.............. 158
10.2.2  The Tool and Its Use .......................... ....................... 159
10.3 Synthesis of ERP Surveys ............................    ............ 161
10.3.1 Investigations into ERP Projects .....................................   161
10.3.2 Investigations into ERP Optimisation Strategies................... 164
10.4 Towards a Maturity Model for ERP "Good Use"............................. 165
10.4.1  M odel Characteristics ................................ ........................  167
10.4.2 Towards a Guideline for ERP Use Improvement .................. 168
10.5 Organisational and Temporal Heterogeneousness of an Information
System  ........................................                169
10.5.1 The Organisational Heterogeneousness....................   169
10.5.2 The Temporal Heterogeneousness ....................     171
10.5.3 Dependences in the Model of Maturity.............................  172
10.6 Towards the Construction of a Learning Path.................................... 176
10.7  Conclusion .................................. ..... ........... ...... 178
10.8  References.............................................  ....   178
11 A Cross-cultural Analysis of ERP Implementation by US and Greek
Companies .............................             ..................... 181
11.1  Introduction............................. 181
11.2 Literature Review .....................................   .......... 182
11.2.1 Prescriptive Literature on ERP..................................   182
11.2.2  Cultural Studies on ERP..................................  183
11.2.3  Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions and Propositions................ 184
11.3  M ethodology............................... 186
11.4 Case Analysis: Implementation and Discussion ................................. 186
11.4.1 US Case Study Company: US Global Energy Corporation...... 187
11.4.2  Greek Case Study Company: Greek Coating Corporation....... 187
11.4.3  Discussion ........................................................ ... 188
11.5  Conclusions............................................   ......... 190
11.6  References........................................................................................   198
Appendix - Utilisation of Suchman's Paper.................................................. 201



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Organizational change, Management information systems