Table of contents for It's time for school! : building quality ABA educational programs for students with autism spectrum disorders / Autism Partnership, Ron Leaf, Mitchell Taubman, John McEachin ; with chapters co-written by Marlena Driscoll ... [et al.].


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Chapter 1      Advantages of School Settings .................................................................  1
Natural Learning Environment ................................................. .......... 1
Social  O pportunities ................................... ........ ............... ............  2
O bservational  Learning   ........................... ............. .................................... 3
G roup  Instruction  ........................................ ................ .............................   5
G en eralizatio n  ...................................................................................................  7
R eferen ces  ................................ ................................. ..................................  9
Chapter 2      Establishing ABA Classrooms ................................................................... 11
Part I: A Model for Developing Staff Skills ................................................. 12
W orkshops .....................................................................   ..............12
Demonstration/Training Classroom........................................ .......... 13
Comprehensive Training and Intern Trainer .................................... 13
Ongoing Consultation............................... ............................. 14
Transfer of Efforts - Building Capacity ............................................. 15
Evaluation   ............................................................. ........... ... .................. 15
Part II: A Model for Establishing ABA Classrooms ..................................... 16
The  Research   ............................ ................. .. ..................... 16
The ABA Classroom Model............................................................ 17
Structure  and  O rganization  .................................................... 17
Behavioral Programming .......................... ............ ............ 19
Behavioral Instruction .......................................................... ......... 20
Inclusion and Typical Peers.................................................. 29
R eferen ces  .................................................................................................  3 1
Chapter 3      What Makes a Good School District? ............................................ ......... 35
Adopting   One   Theoretical Orientation    .......................................................  35
Training and Supervision: Early and Ongoing ............................................. 38
Buy In: Bus Driver to Superintendent .......................................... 38
O u treach  ...................................... ...... ............ ........... .................................   40
C o llab o ratio n  ............................. ................................................................  4 1
O rganization  .................................................................................................... 41
O rganizational  D o's  ............................................................... ..................... 42
R eferen ces  ......................................................... ........................................  43
Chapter 4       What Makes a Good Classroom? ............................................................ 45
Use  of Reinforcem    ent ................................................... .......................... 45
1. Reinforcers Should be Reinforcing................................................ 46
2. Reinforcement Should be Contingent..................................... 46
3. Use a Variety of Reinforcers.............................................. ........ 47
4. Continually Develop New Reinforcers .......................................... 47
5. Pair Social Reinforcers with Tangible Items .................................. 48
6. Use Age Appropriate Reinforcers ............................................ 48
7. Initially, Reinforcement Should Occur Immediately .................. 48
8. Do Not Wait Too Long to Fade Reinforcement ........................ 49
9. Initially, Lable the Behavior Being Reinforced ........................... 49
10. Utilize Differential Reinforcement ........................................... 49
Systematic Behavior Programs ........................   ..   ......................... ........ 50
Continuous    Teaching   .......................................................... .................... 51
Comprehensive Programming ..................................................................... 52
Natural Intervention     ........................................................ ....................  53
Other Indicators of a Good Classroom         ................................................. 54
R eferences   .................................................................................................  55
Chapter 5       What Makes a Good Teacher? .................................................................. 57
R eceptive  ..................................................................... .............................  57
System  atic  .................................................................................................  58
A daptable  ................................................................................................... 58
O bjective  .................................................................................................. 59
Engaging    .................................................................. .............................  59
P rofessio n al .................................... ............... ...............................................  60
B alanced   ...................................................................................................  62
R eferences   .................................................................................................  63
Chapter 6       Determining the Best Placement and Making It Work ................................... 65
Teachers   ............................................................... .................................... 66
A d m in istratio n ..................................... ............ .............................................  69
P aren ts  ....................................................................................................  70
R eferences   .................................................................................................  71
Chapter 7       Consultation: What It Is and What We Do...................................... .......... . 75
Previous  Exposure    to  ABA  ........................................................................... . 76
Exposure to ABA "Experts" .............................................................. 77
Reconciliation and Resolution ............................... ........................... 78
Building the Consultation Relationship: The Ten Commandments ......... 80
1. Thou Shall Create a Behavioral Culture ..................................... 80
2. Thou   Shall Listen  .................................................................. 83
3. No Job is Beneath Thou.................................................. ........... 83
4. Thou Shall Leave Thy Ego at the Door ..............            ...... 85
5. Thou Shall Maintain a Long Term Perspective ............................. 86
6. Thou Shall Teach to Independence ....................... ................. 88
7. Thou Shall Be Willing to Make Mistakes ....................................... 88
8. Thou Shall Normalize the Difficulties in Learning Process ......... 88
9. Thou Shall Be Generous With Your Praise .................................... 89
10. T h ou  Shall  Inspire  ..................... ... . ........................................ 89
References               ....................................... .................. 91
Chapter 8      Coaches  Primer ..............................................................................................  93
First  C onsultation  ....................... .......................................  ... 93
Getting to Know tHer ........................................ ...      94
D efining  ABA  ...................... ........................ ............. 94
D efining  the  Relationship  ................................................................... 95
Inoculation: W  hat to  Expect ................... ........... ................... ..96
Teaching Them to Fish! .................................................. ..........  97
Psycho-Educational: A Non-Directive Approach??? .......................... 98
The  Structure  ............................. ....... ........................ ......................98
Food  for  Thought ...................... ..........................   99
Effective Communication Guidelines ........................................ .......102
Second Consultation ......................            ...     .................... 104
Assessment of Consultation Issues ................................................  109
Successful Trainee Markers ........................          ................ 110
T h ird  C onsultation  .............................................. ............................  112
The  Last Session?  ....................................... .................... ................. 116
Not the  Tim e! ....................................................... 117
Not Resistant, But Time??? ................... ...........  ............... 117
Reinforcem  ent ...................... ............                    ....   118
Developing Reinforcers .......................    .......... ............ 118
Reinforcement Guidelines ..................................... 118
What Staff Should Know About Reinforcement ............................ 120
Behavior  Strategies .............................. .. .................................................. 122
Reactive  .................................... .. . .. .................. ..........................122
Proactive ....... ........................................ 122
Identifying the Function of the Disruptive Behavior ..................... 123
Assessment Form ..................     ....    .................... 124
Identifying Appropriate Alternative Behaviors ............................... 126
Proactive  Strategies ......................... .......... ................... 126
Prompting & Prompt Fading ........................................ 127
Task Analysis: Breaking Skills Into Smaller Parts ............................ 128
"Learning  to  Learn"   .............................. .... .... . . ..  ..................... 129
Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT) ....................    ............................ 130
Functional and Relevant Curriculum ............................................ 132
What's Your Supervisory Style? ...................................... 134
M onthly  Consultation   Notes   ............................................... ....................... 135
Chapter 9       Data Can and Should Be Your Friend!........................................................... 137
ABA   and  M easurem   ent ................................................................................. 137
Balance of Applied and Analytic: Sometimes Less is More ............ 138
Multiple Methods and Sources ................................. .................... 139
Observational Data .................................... ......................... 140
Observational vs. Global Assessments ............................................. 141
O ther  A ssessm ents  .........................................................................  142
Instructional Data   Collection  ................................. ......................  142
D ata  Sam pling  ....................................... .......................................... 143
Behavioral Data Collection ............................................................. 145
Other Types and Sources of Information ....................................... 146
G eneralization  ...............................................................................  147
Data  Analysis ......................................................................  147
R eferences  ...................................................................................................  149
Chapter 10      Functional Behavior Assessment .................................................................. 153
Term  in ology................................... ...................................... .....................  153
Traditional Approaches to Conducting a FBA ........................................... 154
Tier  1: Indirect M easures .................................. ............................. 155
Tier 2: Descriptive Assessment............................. ......... ........ 157
Tier 3: Analog or Experimental Analysis ........................................ 159
Foundations for an Alternative Approach.................................................. 161
Multiple Sources, Methods & Contexts ......................................... 161
Systematic Determination of Individualized Assessment............... 162
F lexib ility  ............................................................. ................. ...   163
Physical Location/Setting ......................................         164
In dividu als  ................................................... ....................................  164
P roced u re  ...........................................................................................  165
Central  Considerations    .................................................................  166
C o n clu sio n  ............................ ........................... ........................................  167
R eferen ces  ....................................... ...........................................................  169
Appendix A      Course Content for Training ABA Personnel .................................................. 171
Training Outline ....................................................................................... 173
Part I: Overview: ABA    and  Autism  ...........................................................  173
Part II: Classroom   Environm   ent  .......................................... ...................... 176
Sample Pre-School Schedule ............................ ............................ 183
Part III: Curriculum   ..................................................................................  184
Part  IV : A BA   Instruction  ..............................................................................  192
Part V: Reinforcem   ent ..............................................................................  201
Rules  of Reinforcem   ent ........................................ ........................  207



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Autistic children Education Handbooks, manuals, etc, Autistic children Behavior modification Handbooks, manuals, etc