Table of contents for Complexity and diversity in the late Iron Age Southern Levant : the investigations of 'Edomite' archaeology and scholarly discourse / Charlotte M. Whiting.


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CHAPTER 1             Introduction                                                              1
CHAPTER 2             Historiography of Iron Age Archaeology in Israel
2.1 Introduction                                                                                5
2.2 The Southern Levant in Christian History and Thought                                        5
2.2.1 Introduction                                                                       5
2.2.2 Christian Pilgrimage and the Development of the Idea of the 'Holy Land'            6
2.2.3 European Perceptions of the 'Holy Land' in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries  7
2.2.4 Perceptions of the 'Holy Land' in America                                          8
2.3 Developments in Nineteenth Century Biblical Scholarship                                     10
2.3.1 Biblical Studies and Historicism                                                  10
2.3.2 Biblical Criticism                                                                11
2.3.3 Edward Robinson and Biblical Topography                                           12
2.4 The Advent of Systematic Excavation in the Southern Levant: 1890-1908                       14
2.4.1 William Mathew Flinders Petrie and his Excavations at Tell el-Hesi (1890)         14
2.4.2 Laying the Foundations of South Levantine Iron Age Archaeology: Culture-History and the Work
of Bliss, Macalister, Welch, and Thiersch                                               16
2.4.3 Summary                                                                           17
2.5 Archaeology in the Southern Levant Pre-World War I                                          17
2.5.1 Early Developments in the Architectural Characterisation of the Iron Age and the Consolidation
of Iron Age Chronology                                                                   17
2.5.2 Summary                                                                            18
2.6 Archaeology in the Southern Levant between the World Wars                                   18
2.6.1 Introduction                                                                       18
2.6.2 The Influence of German Biblical Scholarship on South Levantine Iron Age Archaeology  18
2.6.2.1 Albrecht Alt (1883-1956) and Martin Noth (1902-1968)                     18
2.6.2.2 The Influence of Alt's Conception of 'Ancient Israel' on South Levantine Iron Age
Archaeology                                                                      19
2.6.3 The Influence of American Biblical Scholarship on South Levantine Iron Age Archaeology  20
2.6.3.1 William Foxwell Albright (1891-1971)                                     20
2.6.3.2 The Influence of Albright's Biblical Scholarship on Archaeological Practice in the
Southern Levant                                                                  21
2.6.3.3 Albright's Excavations at Tell el-Ful (1922-1923) and Tell Beit Mirsim (1926-1932)  22
2.6.3.4 George Ernest Wright (1909-1974)                                         24
2.6.3.5 The Influence of Wright's Biblical Scholarship on Archaeological Practice in the
Southern Levant                                                                  25
2.6.3.6 Wright's Excavations at Beth Shemesh (1928-1933)                         26
2.6.3.7 Summary: Albright and Wright's Legacy                                    26
2.7 The Excavations at Megiddo (1925-1939)                                                      26
2.8 The Development of South Levantine Iron Age Archaeology in the 1950s                        28
2.8.1 The Publication of the Excavations at Tell ed-Duweir-Lachish: 1953                28
2.8.2 The Publication of the Excavations at Samaria: 1957                               29
2.9 The Development of Israeli Archaeology                                                    30
2.9.1 Introduction and Background: 1914-1948                                           30
2.9.2 The Excavations at Hazor (1955-1958)                                             30
2.9.3 Summary                                                                          32
2.10 The Excavations at Gezer (1964-1973, 1984)                                               32
2.10.1 Summary                                                                         33
2.11 Late Iron Age Chronology in Southern Israel: 1969-1987                                   33
2.12 The First Critical Assessments of the Traditional Archaeological Framework for the Iron Age in the Southern
Levant: 1990-1996                                                                             35
2.13 Conclusion                                                                               36
CHAPTER 3             The Development of 'Edomite' Archaeology
3.1 Introduction                                                                              37
3.2 The Development of 'Edomite' Archaeology in Southern Jordan                               37
3.2.1 The Influence of Biblical Scholarship on the Study of Edom                       37
3.2.2 Nelson Glueck                                                                    38
3.2.3 The 'National' Characteristics of Edom                                           39
3.2.3.1 The Theophoric Name Qos                                                 39
3.2.3.2 The 'Edomite' Script                                                    40
3.2.3.3 'Edomite' Pottery                                                       40
3.2.4 Crystal-M. Bennett                                                               41
3.2.5 Further Iron Age Excavations in Southern Jordan                                  42
3.2.6 Current Interpretations of Iron Age Southern Jordan                              43
3.3 The Development of 'Edomite' Archaeology in Southern Israel                               44
3.3.1 The 'Edomite Invasion' of Judah                                                  44
3.3.2 Alternative Interpretations of 'Edomite' Pottery in Southern Israel              47
3.3.3 Conclusion                                                                       49
CHAPTER 4            Reassessing the Use of Historical Sources in South Levantine Iron Age
Archaeology
4.1 Introduction                                                                              50
4.2 Traditional Approaches to Old Testament 'History'                                         50
4.2.1 Introduction                                                                     50
4.2.2 The German Historiographic Tradition                                             50
4.2.3 Historicism and Biblical Studies                                                 51
4.3. Recent Approaches to Historical Theory and Methodology                                   52
4.3.1 Introduction                                                                     53
4.3.2 Literature and History - Fiction and Fact                                        53
4.3.3 Text and Context                                                                 55
4.4 The Bible as History?                                                                     55
4.5 The Historical Sources for Edom and Their Interpretation                                  57
4.5.1 Introduction                                                                     57
4.5.2 Summary of the Sources                                                           57
4.5.3 Discussion of the Sources                                                        58
4.5.4 Conclusion                                                                       59
CHAPTER 5             The Practice of Iron Age Archaeology in the Southern Levant: Excavation,
Analysis, Interpretation, and Publication
5.1 Introduction                                                                              60
5.2 Archaeological Interpretation in South Levantine Iron Age Archaeology                     61
5.2.1 The Relationship Between History and Archaeology                                 61
5.2.2 Illustrating, Justifying, and 'Filling-in-the-Gaps' in the Iron Age Southern Levant  62
5.2.3 Texts as an Interpretative Framework                                             62
5.2.4 Summary                                                                           64
5.3 Excavation and Recording Methods in South Levantine Iron Age Archaeology                   64
5.3.1 Introduction                                                                      64
5.3.2 The Architectural Focus                                                           65
5.3.3 G.A. Reisner                                                                      65
5.3.4 C.S. Fisher                                                                       66
5.3.5 W.F. Albright                                                                     67
5.3.6 Nelson Glueck                                                                     70
5.3.7 Kathleen Kenyon                                                                   71
5.3.8 Crystal-M. Bennett                                                                72
5.3.9 Israeli Archaeology                                                               73
5.3.10 The American Excavations at Gezer                                                75
5.3.11 Summary                                                                          76
5.4 Material Culture Analysis in South Levantine Iron Age Archaeology                          77
5.4.1 Introduction                                                                      77
5.4.2 The Nature of Information Provided by Texts and Archaeology                       77
5.4.3 Case Studies                                                                      78
5.4.3.1 The Analysis of Iron Age Ceramics in the Southern Levant                 78
5.4.3.2 A Survey of South Levantine Iron Age Research Foci and their Effect on the Analysis
of Iron Age Material Culture from Southern Jordan                               80
5.4.4 Towards Alternative Approaches                                                    81
5.5 Publication Practices in South Levantine Iron Age Archaeology                               81
5.5.1 The Lack of Publication of Iron Age Excavations                                   81
5.5.2 The Structure of Archaeological Reports                                           82
5.5.3 Summary                                                                           83
5.6 Conclusion                                                                                 83
CHAPTER 6             Material Culture and Identity: Archaeological Theory and Ethnicity
6.1 Introduction                                                                                85
6.2 Background: Approaches to Material Culture and Identity in South Levantine Iron Age Archaeology  85
6.2.1 Nineteenth Century Nationalism                                                    85
6.2.2 Culture-Historical Archaeology                                                    85
6.2.3 Processual and Post-Processual Archaeology                                        86
6.2.4 Approaches to Ethnicity in South Levantine Iron Age Archaeology                   88
6.3 Theories of Ethnicity                                                                      90
6.3.1 Race and Culture                                                                  90
6.3.2 Anthropological Approaches to Ethnicity                                           91
6.3.3 Objectivist and Subjectivist Approaches                                           91
6.3.4 Primordial and Instrumental Approaches                                            92
6.3.5 Ethnicity and Theory of Practice                                                  92
6.3.6 Summary                                                                           92
6.4 Ethnicity and Material Culture                                                              93
6.4.1 The Correlation of Archaeological Cultures with Ethnic Groups                     93
6.4.2 Archaeological Distributions and Archaeological 'Cultures'                        93
6.4.3 Ethnicity and South Levantine Iron Age Archaeology                                94
6.4.4 Ethnicity and Historical Sources                                                  94
6.4.5 Conclusion                                                                        96
6.5 Reassessments                                                                               97
6.5.1 Theories of Practice and Structuration                                            97
6.5.2 Anthony Giddens: Theory of Structuration                                          98
6.5.3 Pierre Bourdieu: The Concept of Habitus                                           98
6.5.4 John Barrett: The Field of Discourse                                              99
6.5.5 An Archaeology of Practice                                                        99
CHAPTER 7             Reassessing 'Edomite' Archaeology: Methodology and Background
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Structuration Theory and Social Practice                                                    101
7.2.1 Summary and Discussion                                                             101
7.3 Data Analysis: Description and Methodology                                                  103
7.3.1 Possible Methodologies and the Limitations of the Data Set                         103
7.3.2 Data Description                                                                   104
7.3.3 Methodology: Functional Ceramics Analysis                                          104
7.3.3.1 The Scheme of Analysis                                                   105
7.3.4 Methodology: Vessel Form Analysis                                                  106
7.3.5 Limitations of the Analyses                                                        107
CHAPTER 8             Data Analysis
8.1 Introduction                                                                                109
8.2 A Comparison of the 'Edomite' Pottery Assemblages from Southern Israel with the Pottery Assemblages
from Southern Jordan                                                                            109
8.2.1 Summary                                                                            110
8.3 A Comparison of the 'Edomite' Pottery Assemblages in Israel                                 110
8.3.1 Summary                                                                            112
8.4 Vessel Form Comparison Jordan                                                               112
8.4.1 Bowl Types                                                                         112
8.4.1.1 Ghrareh and Buseirah                                                     112
8.4.1.2 Ghrareh and Tawilan                                                      113
8.4.1.3 Buseirah and Tawilan                                                     113
8.4.1.4 Umm el-Biyara and Tawilan                                                113
8.4.1.5 Umm el-Biyara and Ghrareh                                                113
8.4.1.6 Umm el-Biyara and Buseirah                                               114
8.4.2 Jar Types                                                                          114
8.4.3 Jug Types                                                                          114
8.4.4 Cooking Pot Types                                                                  114
8.4.5 Other Sites in Jordan                                                           ' 115
8.4.6 Summary                                                                            115
8.5 Vessel Form Comparison of the Non-'Edomite' Pottery Assemblages from Southern Israel        116
8.5.1 T-Test Analysis                                                                    116
8.5.2 The Distribution of Non-'Edomite' Vessel Forms at Sites in Southern Israel         116
8.5.2.1 Bowl Forms                                                               117
8.5.2.2 Jar Forms                                                                117
8.5.2.3 Jug Forms                                                                118
8.5.2.4 Cooking Pot Forms                                                        119
8.5.2.5 Krater Forms                                                             119
8.5.3 Summary                                                                            119
8.6 Functional Ceramics Analysis                                                                120
8.7 Decoration Analysis                                                                         121
8.8 The Distribution of Pottery 'Styles' in the Southern Levant                                 121
8.9 Conclusion                                                                                  122
CHAPTER 9             Diversity and Complexity in the Southern Levant
9.1 Introduction                                                                                123
9.2 Complexity and Diversity in Late Iron Age Material Culture Patterning                       123
9.3 Late Iron Age Material Culture in the Southern Levant: Agency and Structure                 124
9.4 'Edomite' Pottery and Appropriation                                                         125
9.4.1 Introduction                                                                       125
9.4.2 Theories of Consumption and Appropriation                                         125
9.4.3 Temporal Context: 'Edomite' Pottery and Foodways                                   127
9.4.4 Geographical Context: The Wadi 'Arabah                                             129
9.4.5 Summary and Discussion                                                             130
9.5 Conclusion                                                                                  131
CHAPTER 10            Conclusion                                                                133
Bibliography                                                                                    135
APPENDIX 1            The Nature of the Data used from Late Iron Age Sites in the Southern
Levant
1. Sites in Southern Israel                                                                     157
1.1 Introduction                                                                         157
1.2 Tel Arad                                                                             157
1.3 Aroer                                                                                157
1.4 Abu Tuwein                                                                           158
1.5 Tel Beersheba                                                                        158
1.6 Tel Beit Mirsim                                                                      158
1.7 Beth Zur                                                                             158
1.8 En Gedi                                                                              158
1.9 En Haseva                                                                            158
1.10 Tel el-Ful                                                                          158
1.11 Gezer                                                                               158
1.12 Tel Haror                                                                           158
1.13 Tel Ira                                                                             159
1.14 Jerusalem - The Ophel                                                               159
1.15 Lachish                                                                             159
1.16 Tel Malhata                                                                         159
1.17 Tel Masos                                                                           159
1.18 Horvat Qitmit                                                                       159
1.19 Ramat Rahel                                                                         159
1.20 Tel Sera'                                                                           159
1.21 Hurvat Shilhah                                                                      160
1.22 Horvat Uza                                                                          160
2. Sites in Southern Jordan                                                                     160
2.1 Introduction                                                                         160
2.2 Buseirah                                                                             160
2.3 Khirbet Ishra                                                                        160
2.4 Ghrareh                                                                              160
2.5 Tel el-Kheleifeh                                                                     160
2.6 Khirbet al-Megheitah                                                                 160
2.7 Tawilan                                                                              161
2.8 Umm el-Biyara                                                                        161
2.9 Jabal al-Qseir, Es-Sadeh, Baja III, and Khirbet al-Mu'allaq                          161
2.10 Ash-Shorabat                                                                        161



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Iron age Palestine, Edomites Palestine Antiquities, Excavations (Archaeology) Palestine