Table of contents for Climate change : an Indian perspective / S.K. Dash.


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Preface                                                    1
Chapter 1
Climate and Some Related Global Phenomena                  9
1.1 Climate Classification                                11
1.2 Why Different Climates?                               13
1.3 Past Major Climate Changes                            15
1.4  The Indian Summer Monsoon                            19
1.5  El Ni7io and Southern Oscillation (ENSO)             26
1.6  The Hydrological Cycle                               32
1.7  Carbon Cycle                                         35
Chapter 2
Radiation and Greenhouse Gases                            40
2.1 The Solar Radiation                                   41
2.2  Latitudinal Variations in Solar Radiation            44
2.3 Depletion of Solar Radiation                          47
2.3.1 Absorption of solar radiation                   48
2.3.2 Reflection of solar radiation                   49
2.3.3 Scattering of solar radiation                   50
2.4  Terrestrial Radiation                                51
2.5 Role of Aerosols, Ozone, and Trace Gases              53
2.6 Disposition of Solar Radiation                        56
2.7  The Radiation Balance                                58
2.8 Greenhouse Gases and Atmospheric Chemistry            62
2.9  Radiative Forcings                                   64
2.9.1 Direct Effects                                 66
2.9.2 Indirect Effects                                68
2.10 Forcing-Response Relationship                        70
2.11 Global Warming Potentials                            75
Chapter 3
Global Evidences of Changes in Climate and Environment    78
3.1 Melting of Snow, Ice and Glaciers                     81
3.1.1 Himalayan lakes                                81
3.1.2 North Pole ice cap                             82
3.1.3 Antarctica ice shelves                         83
3.1.4 Glaciers                                       83
3.2  Excessively Cold Winter in Europe                    84
3.3 Bleaching of Great Barrier Reef                       85
3.4  Ozone Hole                                           85
3.5  Asian Brown Cloud                                    88
Chapter 4
Evidences of Climatic and Environmental Changes in India  94
4.1 Indications of Warming                                96
4.2 Increase in Fog Days                                  99
4.3  Snow Ablation and Snow Fall                         105
4.4  Rainfall                                              106
4.5  Monsoon Depressions and Cyclones                      109
4.6  Sea Level Rise                                        115
4.7  Water Stress                                          117
4.8  Mangrove Wetlands and Ecosystems                      119
4.9  Deforestation and Desertification                     121
4.10 Environmental Degradation                             124
Chapter 5
Possible Impacts of Climate Change in India                129
5.1 Impact on Indian Agriculture                           130
5.1.1 Direct effects of climate change on crops       131
5.1.2 Indirect effects on crops                       134
5.2 Impacts on Forests                                     135
5.3 Impacts on Coastal Zones and Mangrove Ecosystems       142
5.4 Impacts on Mountain Ecosystems                         146
Chapter 6
Clean Technology and Energy                               148
6.1  Clean Development Mechanism                           149
6.2  Some GEF-UNDP Projects for Low Carbon                 152
6.3  Some Examples of Future Clean Technology              154
6.3.1 Methane digester                                155
6.3.2 Biodiesel                                       155
6.3.3 Natural compost                                 156
6.3.4 Eco-friendly plastic                            156
6.3.5 Eco-friendly paper making                       157
6.4 Alternate Energy                                   158
6.4.1 Hydrogen                                     158
6.4.2 Bio-fuels                                    161
6.4.3 Solar energy                                 163
6.4.4 Wind energy                                  164
6.4.5 Hydroelectric power                          165
6.4.6 Gobar gas                                    166
Chapter 7
Mitigation Efforts by the Government of India          169
7.1 GHG Emissions Estimation                           171
7.2 Environmental Protection Policies                  176
7.3 Collaboration with Global Agencies                 177
7.4 Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in India         180
7.5 National Science Programmes                        185
Chapter 8
Issues of Concern in Some Important Sectors            189
8.1 Energy Use and Management                          189
8.2 Sustainable Forest Management                      199
8.3 Adaptation Measures in Agriculture                 204
8.4 Coastal Zone Management                            206
8.5 Conservation of Water                              207
8.6 Biodiversity                                       210
8.7 Land Use and Land Cover Changes                    213
Chapter 9
Uncertainties and Possible Approaches                  216
9.1 Uncertainties in Climate Change                    218
9.2 Integrated Methods of Observation and Data Use     221
9.3 Useful Predictions                                 225
9.4 Educating People on Climate Change                 226
9.5 Development and Environment                        230
9.6 Role of Environmentalists                          233
9.7 Need for Effective Science-Policy Interface        235
9.8 Regional Climate Change                            236
Appendix A                                             241
Appendix B                                             246
Appendix C                                             248
References                                             250



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