Table of contents for Geology of the Netherlands / editors, Theo E. Wong, Dick A.J. Batjes, and Jan de Jager.


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" M and geology: a long-standing and deep relationship > vii
Seword > S.B. Kroonenberg > viii
ii-oduction > Th.E. Wong, D.A.J. Batjes & J. de Jager > 1
clogical development > J. de Jager > 5
i',-Silesian > M.C. Geluk, M. Dusar & W. de Vos > 27
Viżl sian > J.M. van Buggenurn & D.G. den Hartog Jager > 43
I lmian > M.C. Geluk > 63
' iassic > M.C. Geluk > 85
l rassic > Th.E. Wong > 107
C. ctaceous > G.F.W. Herngreen & Th.E. Wong > 127
u ltiarv > Th.E. Wong, I.R. de Lugt, G. Kuhlmann & I. Overeem > 151
Qi!aiternary > W. de Gans > 173
Malngmatism in the Netherlands: expression of the north-west European rifting history > M.J. van Bergen & W. Sissingh > 197
Natural and induced seismicity > B. Dost & H.W. Haak > 223
Petroleum geology > J. de Jager & M.C. Geluk > 241
Peat, coal and coalbed methane > F. van Bergen, H.J.M. Pagnier & P.C.H. van Tongeren > 265
"SAl > M.C. Geluk, W.A. Paar & P.A. Fokker > 283
iC o indwater > J.J. de Vries > 295
Surface mineral resources > M.J. van der Meulen, J.W. Broers, A.L. Hakstege, H.S. Pietersen, M.W.I.M. van Heijst &
T.P.F. Koopmans > 317
(U.'derground storage and sequestration > C.F.M. Bos > 335
f 1othermal energy > A. Lokhorst & Th.E. Wong > 341
G(xtributing authors > 347
i luix > M.B. van Trigt > 349
2007936185
I The Path of Light ................................................. 1
1.1 The Straight and  Narrow............................ ........ .............. 1
1.2 The Fastest Thing Around...................................3
1.3  Standing  in  the  Shadow s ............................................................5
1.4  The  Reversible  Path  of  Light ........................................................ ..   7
1.5  The  W orld  through  a  H ole  ........................................ .................... 8
1.6  A  Room  w ith  a  V iew  ..........................................................   10
2  The  Reflection  of Light ..................................................................................... 13
2.1 Reflections on  the Past............................ ..... ............... 13
2.2  A ll T hings  E qual ............................................................ 15
2.3  From  the  Looking  Glass...........................   .................... 16
2.4  The  Curved  M irror..................... ...............................   19
2.5  Shaving  and  a Spoon...................................  ................20
2.6  The  Rough  Edges ........................................ .................22
3 Daguerreotypes: Light Captured ........................................ .......25
3.1  A  Race  to  Capture  Light ....................................... ................. ....25
3.2  Tripping  the Light Fantastic................................................26
3.3  It's all in  the  Reflection................................................29
4  The Refraction  of Light ............................................................. ................. 33
4.1  From   G alaxy  to  Fish  ............................................................. 33
4.2 Altering the Speed of Light........................        .........33
4.3  The  L ight  B rigade  ...........................................................   36
4.4  The  Properties  of W aves ........................................ ............. .......38
4.5 On the Beach.....................................................40
4.6  The  Law  of R efraction  ............................................................. 42
4.7 The Refractive Index..................     .......    ...................43
4.8 Total Internal Reflection ................................................. 45
4.9  D iffraction: N ew ton's  M istake  ....................................... ...................46
5 Lenses: From Water Drops to Telescopes ...................................... ...49
5.1  V iew ing  the  U nknow n  ...............................................................................49
5.2  The  Focal Length  ...................................... ...................50
5.3 Of Objects, Images, and Burning Glasses ................................  52
5.4  B urning  G lasses  ........................................ ................. 53
5.5  M easuring  M agnification  ..........................................................55
5.6  The  Com pound  M icroscope ...........................................................57
5.7  A  N ew  M icroscope  ............................................................. 59
5.8  Inside  the  SEM .........................................................62
5.9 Optical versus Electron Microscopy .....................     .....64
5.10 Seeing the Distant .........................        ...................66
5.11  Im perfect Light .........................................................67
5.12 The M ost Advanced Camera..................................................69
5.13  Still an  Im perfect C am era  ............................................................71
6  Sources of Light and  Color ...........................................................................   75
6.1 Crossroads...............................................         75
6.2  W aves, Rebounding  ...........................................................75
6.3  W aves, U nfolding  ...........................................................78
6.4  Photons, Reflecting ...................................... ............... 80
6.5  The Color of Objects....................................................82
6.6 Sources of Light..............................           ........... 83
6.7  Replacing  Edison ........................................ . ..................85
6.8 Revolution in White Light Sources .....................     ...... 86
6.9  Tricking  Photons with  Lasers................................ ........... 87
6.10  Structural Color......................................................88
6.11 The Eye and Color Sensation ...................... ........ ................. 89
7 Diffraction and Interference ........................................ .................... 91
7.1 Light as a Wave ..........................             ...................91
7.2  W ave  Interference  ...................................................................... ...........  9 1
7.3  Young's Interference...............................................93
7.4  C olor  from   Interference  ...........................................................94
7.5 Soap Bubbles .............................................95
7.6  O il Slicks  and  Lens  C oatings ................................................................ 96
7.7  Newton's Rings.........................................................99
7.8 Birds of a Feather..................................................99
7.9  D iffraction................ .......................................................... 100
7.10  Diffraction  Gratings ...................................... 101
8  R ainbow s .............................................. ...................................................... 103
8.1 Through the Looking Glass.............................................. 103
8.2  The  Pot of G old................................................................................ 103
8.3 A  Rainbow  by Hand.................................       ....... 105
8.4 The Antisolar Point ................................... ...... ........... .. 106
8.5  Rainbows in  3D  .................................... ..................   108
8.6 The Double Rainbow  ..... ............................................... 109
8.7  The Light inside a Rainbow  ...................................... 112
8.8 Rainbows Far Afield ....................................... 113
9 Sea, Sky, and Cloud .......................................          115
9.1  B eam   of  L ight  .................................................................. ..................  115
9.2  The  Color of Sky ...................................................... 115
9.3 The Color of Sea ....................................................... 116
9.4  The  Color of Sm oke .................................................. 118
9.5  W hite Clouds and  Smoke.................................................... 119
9.6  Salt with  your Beer?..... ........... ........................ 122
9.7 The Remains of the Day.....................................................  123
9.8  The  Shadow  in  the East..................................................... 125
9.9 Beyond the Horizon .................................................... 125
9.10 An Oasis in the Sahara (or the Arctic) .................................   127
9. 11  Sundogs and  Halos ........................................................ 129
10 Polarized Light and Sunglasses .....................................  131
10.1  Sunglasses ......................................................... 131
10.2 Polarized Light....................               ...................132
10.3  Polarization  by  Reflection............................ ............... 133
10.4  Polarization  by  Scattering  ........................................... 134
10.5  Polarization  by  Absorption  ........................................ 135
10.6  Calcite  and  Double  Refraction  ............................................................ 136
10.7  Polarization  and  the  Eye  .................. ....................... ...............  138
11 Photons, Electrons, and the Atom .....................................  139
11.1 Light is Created and Destroyed......................................... 139
11.2  Packets of Energy ............................................ 139
11.3  The  Electron................................... 140
11.4 The Bohr Model of the Atom...................................... 142
11.5  Light and  Electrons ...................... .................................. 142
11.6 Electrons and the Spectrum....................................... 143
11.7  X -ray  Energies  ................................................................................. 145
11.8 Characteristic X-rays ..........................................  146
12 X-rays, Ultraviolet Light, and Infrared .....................................  147
12.1  Beyond  the  V isible.................................................... 147
12.2 Discoveries beyond the Visible....................................... 148
12.2.1 Infrared  (IR) Radiation  ........................................ 148
12.2.2 Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation...................................... 149
12.2.3  X -radiation  (X -rays) ................................. .................... 149
12.3 Light Absorption ...................................................... 152
12.4 X-ray Absorption ................................................ 152
12.5 Fluorescence with Ultraviolet Light.........................   153
12.6  Infrared  Light ................................................................................... 154
12.7  Infrared  Space Exploration  ...................................... 154
13 X-ray Emission: Earth, Moon, and Mars .....................................   157
13.1 The Moon......  ....................     ..      ..... .................... 157
13.2 X-ray  Emission  ................... ....           ................. 158
13.3 X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) ........................................ 158
13.4 Electron Microprobe and Electron Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS)......160
13.5 Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE)................................   162



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Geology Netherlands, Natural resources Netherlands, Natural resources Netherlands Management, Environmental protection Netherlands