Table of contents for Automation, production systems, and computer-integrated manufacturing / Mikell P. Groover.


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Chapter 1    INTRODUCTION                                                            1
1.1  Production Systems 3
1.2  Automation in Production Systems 9
1.3  Manual Labor in Production Systems 13
1.4  Automation Principles and Strategies 15
1.5  Organization of this Book 20
PART I:     OVERVIEW OF MANUFACTURING                                             23
Chapter 2    MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS                                              23
2.1  Manufacturing Industries and Products 27
2.2  Manufacturing Operations 30
2.3  Production Facilities 34
2.4  Product/Production Relationships 39
2.5  Lean Production 44
Chapter 3    MANUFACTURING MODELS AND METRICS                                      48
3.1  Mathematical Models of Production Performance 49
3.2  Manufacturing Costs 57
APPENDIX    Averaging Procedures for Production Models 66
PART II: AUTOMATION AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES                                      69
Chapter 4    INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMATION                                            69
4.1  Basic Elements of an Automated System  71
4.2  Advanced Automation Functions 79
4.3  Levels of Automation 84
Chapter 5    INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEMS                                            88
5.1  Process Industries Versus Discrete Manufacturing Industries 89
5.2  Continuous Versus Discrete Control 91
5.3  Computer Process Control 97
Chapter 6    HARDWARE COMPONENTS FOR AUTOMATION AND PROCESS CONTROL                114
6.1  Sensors 115
6.2  Actuators 119
6.3  Analog-to-Digital Converters 128
6.4  Digital-to-Analog Converters 131
6.5 Input/Output Devices for Discrete Data 134
Chapter 7    NUMERICAL CONTROL                                                     139
7.1  Fundamentals of NC Technology 142
7.2  Computer Numerical Control 148
7.3  Distributed Numerical Control 153
7.4  Applications of NC  156
7.5  Engineering Analysis of NC Positioning Systems 163
7.6  NC Part Programming 171
Appendix A 7: Coding for Manual Part Programming 189
Appendix B 7: Part Programming with Apt 197
Chapter 8    INDUSTRIAL ROBOTICS                                                   213
8.1  Robot Anatomy and Related Attributes 215
8.2  Robot Control Systems 221
8.3  End Effectors 223
8.4  Sensors in Robotics 224
8.5 Industrial Robot Applications 225
8.6  Robot Programming 233
8.7  Robot Accuracy and Repeatability 241
Chapter 9    DISCRETE CONTROL USING PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS
AND PERSONAL COMPUTERS                                                250
9.1  Discrete Process Control 250
9.2  Ladder Logic Diagrams 258
9.3  Programmable Logic Controllers 262
9.4  Personal Computers Using Soft Logic 269
PART III:    MATERIAL HANDLING AND IDENTIFICATION
TECHNOLOGIES                                                         273
Chapter 10   MATERIAL TRANSPORT SYSTEMS                                            273
10.1 Introduction to Material Handling 274
10.2 Material Transport Equipment 279
10.3 Analysis of Material Transport Systems 296
Chapter 11   STORAGE SYSTEMS                                                       313
11.1 Storage System Performance and Location Strategies 314
11.2 Conventional Storage Methods and Equipment 318
11.3 Automated Storage Systems 321
11.4 Engineering Analysis of Storage Systems 329
Chapter 12   AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION AND DATA CAPTURE                              342
12.1 Overview of Automatic Identification Methods 343
12.2 Bar Code Technology 346
12.3 Radio Frequency Identification 354
12.4 Other AIDC Technologies 356
PART IV: MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS                                                     359
Chapter 13  INTRODUCTION TO MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS                                   359
13.1 Components of a Manufacturing System 361
13.2 A Classification Scheme for Manufacturing Systems 366
13.3 Overview of the Classification Scheme 373
Chapter 14   SINGLE-STATION MANUFACTURING CELLS                                     378
14.1 Single-Station Manned Cells 379
14.2 Single-Station Automated Cells 380
14.3 Applications of Single-Station Cells 385
14.4 Analysis of Single-Station Systems 390
Chapter 15   MANUAL ASSEMBLY LINES                                                  401
15.1 Fundamentals of Manual Assembly Lines 403
15.2 Analysis of Single Model Assembly Lines 410
15.3 Line Balancing Algorithms 417
15.4 Mixed Model Assembly Lines 422
15.5 Workstation Considerations 434
15.6 Other Considerations in Assembly Line Design  435
15.7 Alternative Assembly Systems 438
Chapter 16   AUTOMATED PRODUCTION LINES                                             448
16.1 Fundamentals of Automated Production Lines 449
16.2 Applications of Automated Production Lines 458
16.3 Analysis of Transfer Lines 462
Chapter 17   AUTOMATED ASSEMBLY SYSTEMS                                             481
17.1 Fundamentals of Automated Assembly Systems 482
17.2 Quantitative Analysis of Assembly Systems 488
Chapter 18   CELLULAR MANUFACTURING                                                 507
18.1 Part Families 509
18.2 Parts Classification and Coding 512
18.3 Production Flow Analysis 516
18.4 Cellular Manufacturing 518
18.5 Applications of Group Technology 523
18.6 Quantitative Analysis in Cellular Manufacturing 525
Chapter 19   FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS                                         538
19.1 What is a Flexible Manufacturing System? 540
19.2 FMS Components 545
19.3 FMS Applications and Benefits 555
19.4 FMS Planning and Implementation Issues 558
19.5 Quantitative Analysis of Flexible Manufacturing Systems 560
PART V: QUALITY CONTROL IN MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS                                   585
Chapter 20   QUALITY PROGRAMS FOR MANUFACTURING                                     585
20.1 Quality in Design and Manufacturing 586
20.2 Traditional and Modern Quality Control 587
20.3 Process Variability and Process Capability 590
20.4 Statistical Process Control 594
20.5 Six Sigma 605
20.6 The Six Sigma DMAIC Procedure 608
20.7 Taguchi Methods in Quality Engineering 615
20.8 ISO 9000 620
Chapter 21   INSPECTION PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES                                    629
21.1 Inspection Fundamentals 630
21.2 Sampling vs. 100% Inspection 635
21.3 Automated Inspection  639
21.4 When and Where to Inspect 641
21.5 Quantitative Analysis of Inspection  645
Chapter 22   INSPECTION TECHNOLOGIES                                                658
22.1 Inspection Metrology 659
22.2 Contact vs. Noncontact Inspection Techniques 663
22.3 Conventional Measuring and Gaging Techniques 664
22.4 Coordinate Measuring Machines 665
22.5 Surface Measurement 679
22.6 Machine Vision  682
22.7 Other Optical Inspection Methods 688
22.8 Noncontact Nonoptical Inspection Techniques 691
PART VI: MANUFACTURING SUPPORT SYSTEMS                                             697
Chapter 23   PRODUCT DESIGN AND CAD/CAM IN THE PRODUCTION SYSTEM                    697
23.1 Product Design and CAD 699
23.2 CAD System Hardware 705
23.3 CAM, CAD/CAM, and CIM 708
23.4 Quality Function Deployment 712
Chapter 24  PROCESS PLANNING AND CONCURRENT ENGINEERING                          719
24.1 Process Planning 720
24.2 Computer-Aided Process Planning 726
24.3 Concurrent Engineering and Design for Manufacturing 728
24.4 Advanced Manufacturing Planning 732
Chapter 25  PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL SYSTEMS                              737
25.1 Aggregate Production Planning and the Master Production Schedule 740
25.2 Material Requirements Planning 741
25.3 Capacity Planning 747
25.4 Shop Floor Control 749
25.5 Inventory Control 755
25.6 Extensions of MRP 762
Chapter 26  JUST-IN-TIME AND LEAN PRODUCTION                                    769
26.1 Lean Production and Waste in Manufacturing 770
26.2 Just-in-Time Production Systems 774
26.3 Autonomation 781
26.4 Worker Involvement 785



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Manufacturing processes Automation, Production control, CAD/CAM systems, Computer integrated manufacturing systems, Robots, Industrial