Table of contents for Guide to U.S. elections.


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VOLUME           I
Tables, Figures, and Boxes xiii
Editors' Note xv
Introduction xxx
PART I Elections in America         1
"CHAPTER 1 The Evolution of American Elections         3
Challenging the Two Parties 3
The Basic Layout 5
Republicans Start Fast 5
Democrats Take Charge 7
Postwar Politics: Kennedy and Nixon 8
Split-Level Realignment 9
The Era of Closeness 12
A Tale of Two Nations 13
Historic Milestones in U.S. Elections 14
"CHAPTER 2 Elections: An Expanding Franchise         21
Broadening the Franchise 21
The Black Vote: A Long, Painful Struggle 24
Women's Vote: A Victory in Stages 32
The Eighteen-Year-Old Vote 33
Voter Registration 34
Other Voting Trends in Recent Years 36
PART II Political Parties 41
"CHAPTER 3 Campaign Finance          43
Controversy Surrounds Financing System 43
Financing Campaigns: Historical Development 45
Campaign Finance Reform in the 1970os and 1980s 50
Controversies and Practices Since the 1990os 58
The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 68
Candidates' Contributions and Expenditures 69
"CHAPTER 4 Politics and Issues, 1945-2004       85
Post-World War II Years 88
The Vietnam War Years   115
Years of Uneasy Peace 128
The Post-Cold War Era 144
A Partisan Era 148
CHAPTER 5 Political Party Development             165
Political Issues and the Emergence of Parties 165
Internal Party Politics 169
Third Parties 171
CHAPTER 6 Historical Profiles of American Political Parties            175
American Independent Party and American Party 175
Anti-Federalists 176
Anti-Masonic Party 176
Breckinridge (Southern) Democrats 177
Citizens Party 178
Communist Party 178
Conservative Party 179
Constitutional Union Party 179
Democratic Party 179
Democratic-Republican Party 185
Dixiecrats (States' Rights Party) 186
Federalists 186
Free Soil Party 187
Green Party 187
Greenback Party 188
Know Nothing (American) Party 188
Liberal Party 189
Liberal Republican Party 19o
Libertarian Party 19o
Liberty Party 191
National Democratic Party 191
National Republican Party 191
National Unity Party (Independent John B. Anderson) 192
Natural Law Party 193
New Alliance Party 193
Peace and Freedom Party 193
People's Party 193
Populist (People's) Party 194
Progressive (Bull Moose) Party 194
Progressive Party (La Follette) 195
Progressive Party (Wallace) 195
Prohibition Party 196
Reform Party (Independent Ross Perot) 197
Republican Party 198
Socialist Party 203
Socialist Labor Party 204
Socialist Workers Party 204
Union Party 205
U.S. Labor Party (Independent Lyndon LaRouche) 205
U.S. Taxpayers Party and Constitution Party 205
Whig Party 206
Workers World Party 207
CHAPTER 7 The Historical Significance of Southern Primaries          209
Runoff Primaries 210
Preferential Primaries 210
County Unit System: Georgia 211
Special Elections 211
Racial Discrimination 212
PART III Presidential Elections 213
CHAPTER 8 Introduction         215
Who Runs for President 215
The Exploratory Stage 216
The Primary and Caucus Schedule 216
The Presidential Nomination 218
General Election Campaign 219
Electoral College 223
Term of Office 227
Roads to the White House 227
CHAPTER 9 Chronology of Presidential Elections          231
The Emergence of the Electoral Process 231
The Age of Jackson 239
The Idea of a Party System 242
Slavery Divides the Nation 245
Postwar Radicalism 251
The Age of Republicanism 254
The Age of Reform 258
The "Return to Normalcy" and the Roaring Twenties 264
The New Deal Coalition 269
The Breakup of Consensus 284
The New Conservative Discourse 290
The Clinton Era 295
Republicans Retake the Presidency 301
CHAPTER 10 Presidential Primaries        315
"Front-Loaded" Process 315
An Evolutionary Process 317
Nominations Reform: Reversal of Fortune 319
Nominations Today 326
CH A P TER 11 Presidential Primary Returns, 1912-2004       331
CHAPTER 12 Nominating Conventions 431
Convention Sites 431
Delegate Selection 432
Controversial Rules 441
Convention Officers 441
Party Platforms 444
Filling Vacancies 445
Communications and the Media 447
CHAPTER 13 Political Party Nominees, 1831-200oo4       451
C H A P T E R 14 Convention Chronology, 1831-200oo4 463
C H A P T E R 15 Key Convention Ballots 6o01
C H A P T E R 16 Popular Vote Returns for President 673
Presidential Popular Vote Returns: Minor Candidates and Parties, 1824-200oo4 720
C H A P T E R 17 The Electoral College 733
Constitutional Background 733
Methods of Choosing Electors 735
Historical Anomalies 738
Election by Congress 738
Counting the Electoral Vote 742
Reform Proposals 745
Presidential Disability 747
CHAPTER 18 Electoral Votes for President, 1789-200oo4      749
Electoral Votes for Vice President, 1804-200oo4 805
C H A P T E R 19 Biographical Directory of Presidential and Vice-Presidential Candidates 809
INDEXES, following page 816
Presidential Candidates Index i-i
General Subject Index 1-3
VOLUME           II
PART IV Congressional Elections 817
CHAPTER 20 Introduction         819
Characteristics of Members 820
Women in Congress 821
Blacks in Congress 824
Hispanics in Congress 826
Turnover in Membership 827
Shifts between Chambers 831
C H A P T E R 21 House Elections 833
The People's Branch 833
Special Elections 836
Disputed House Elections 837
Party Control Shifts 838
CHAPTER 2 2 Reapportionment and Redistricting          841
Early History of Reapportionment 842
Reapportionment: The Number of Seats 844
Redistricting: Drawing the Lines 849
Major Supreme Court Cases on Redistricting 856
Practical Results of Court's Rulings 861
Mid-Decade Redistricting and Partisan Gerrymandering 866
CHAPTER 23 House Returns, 1824-200oo4        871
CHAPTER 24 Senate Elections        1283
Election by State Legislatures 1283
Changing Election Procedures 1283
Demands for Popular Election 1285
Senate's Three Classes 1286
Sessions and Terms 1286
The Modern Senate 1287
CHAPTER 25 U.S. Senators, 1789-2005        1289
CHAPTER 26 Senate General Election Returns, 1913-20oo4        1321
CHAPTER 27 Senate Primary Election Returns, 192o-200oo4        1361
PART V Gubernatorial Elections 1437
CHAPTER 28 Introduction        1439
Length of Terms 1439
Elections in Nonpresidential Years 1441
Method of Election 1441
Number of Terms 1441
Majority Vote Requirement 1442
Hotbed of Volatility 1444
CHAPTER 29 Governors of the States, 1776-2oo5        1445
C H A P T E R 30 o Gubernatorial General Election Returns, 1776-200oo4 1477
C H A P T E R 31 Gubernatorial Primary Election Returns, 1919-200oo4 1541
REFERENCE MATERIALS           1609
Constitutional Provisions and Amendments on Elections 1611
Population of the United States and Puerto Rico, 1790-200ooo 1614
Changing Methods of Electing Presidential Electors, 1788-1836 1616
Presidential Nominating Campaign Lengths, 1968-2004 1618
Victorious Party in Presidential Races, 1860-200oo4 1620
Distribution of House Seats and Electoral Votes 1622
Bush v. Gore: Excerpts from the 2000 Supreme Court Decision on the Florida Recount 1623
Election Results, Congress and the Presidency, 1860-200oo4 1635
Results of House Elections, 1928-200oo4 1638
Sessions of the U.S. Congress, 1789-200oo4 1642
Speakers of the House of Representatives, 1789-200oo5 1652
House Floor Leaders, 1899-200oo5 1654
Senate Floor Leaders, 1911-200oo5 1656
Election-Related Web Sites 1658
Political Party Abbreviations 166o
Selected Bibliography 1665
Illustration Credits and Acknowledgments 1673
INDEX E S, following page 1674
House Candidates Index I-1
Senate General Election Candidates Index 1-114
Senate Primary Candidates Index 1-121
Gubernatorial General Election Candidates Index 1-13o
Gubernatorial Primary Candidates Index 1-144
General Subject Index 1-153



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Elections United States History Statistics, Political conventions United States History, Political parties United States History, United States Politics and government 2001-