Table of contents for Animal imagery in the book of Proverbs / by Tova L. Forti.


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C hapter  1: Introduction  .....................................................................  1
1.1  G eneral R em arks  ................................................................................  1
1.2  Survey  of Scholarly  Approaches  ..........................................................  2
1.3  M etho do logy  ....................................................................... ....................  4
1.3.1 The Problem of Zoological Identification ...................................... 5
1.3.2  The  Zoological Dimension  .......................................................... 7
1.3.3  The  Literary  Dim ension  .............................................................. 7
1.3.4  The  Conceptual Dimension  ........................................ .................  9
1.4 The Book of Proverbs: Introductory Remarks....................................... 11
1.5  Literary  Form s  ................... .................................. ....................  13
1.5.1  Short  Form s  ...............................................................................  14
1.5.1.1 The  Comparative  Saying  ................................ .................  15
1.5.1.2  The  Antithetical Saying  ................................. .................. 16
1.5.1.3  The  "Better-Than"  Saying  ............................. ..................  17
1.5.1.4  Direct Speech  ....................................... 18
1.5.1.5  The  M etaphorical Saying  ................................ ................. 18
1.5.2  Long  Form s  ...............................................................................  18
1.5.2.1 Admonition and Exhortation Speech .................................. 18
1.5.2.2  First-Person  N arrative...................................................... 21
1.5.2.3  The  Numerical Saying  .....................................................  21
1.5.2.4 The Graded Numerical Sequence ...................................... 22
Chapter 2: Animal Imagery as a Literary and Artistic Device .......... 25
2.1  A dm onitions  ....................................................................................... 25
2.1.1 Animal Imagery as a Concretizing Device in the Motive Clause. 25
2.1.1.1 Bacal Kdnip 'Winged Creature'. ........................................ 25
2.1.1.2  N eger  'V ulture'. ...............................................................  30
2.1.2 Animal Imagery in the Consequence Clause ................................ 35
2.1.2.1 NahaŹ 'Serpent' and SiPCdnoi 'Viper' in a Satirical Poem ... 35
2.1.3 Animal Imagery as an Exemplification in a Situational Clause ... 40
2.1.3.1  bfT 'Deer' and Sippdr 'Bird' ............... ................... 40
2.1.3.2 S6r 'Bull, Ox' and Sipp6r 'Bird' in a
First-Person  N arrative  ..................................................... 44
2.2  Proverbial Sayings ....................................................... 49
2.2.1 Animal Imagery to Exemplify an Idea ..................................... 49
2.2.1.1  H diztr  'Pig' in  a  Sim ile  ..................................................  ... 49
2.2.1.2 Sippdr 'Sparrow' in a Comparative Saying ..................... 52
2.2.2 Animal Imagery as a Rhetorical Device
in the M oral of an  Instruction  ...................... ................. .... 55
2.2.2.1 -'Alpim 'Oxen, Cattle' and S6r 'Ox'
in an Antithetical Saying ......................... 55
2.2.2.2 KIpir 'Lion' in an Antithetical Saying ............................. 57
2.2.2.3 Ipir 'Lion' in a Synthetic Saying ................................... 60
2.2.2.4 'Ari 'Lion' and Dab 'Bear' in a Comparative Saying......... 62
2.2.2.5 KIpir 'Lion' in an Antithetical Saying ............................ .... 66
2.2.2.6 Derdr 'Sparrow' in a Comparative Saying ...................... 68
2.2.2.7 Hamd6r 'Donkey' and Sfis 'Horse'
in  a Comparative  Saying  ...................................... ....   71
2.2.3 Animal Imagery as an Expression of Ethical Values ................ 75
2.2.3.1 S6r Abfis 'Fattened Ox' in a "Better-Than" Saying ........... 75
2.2.3.2 Sfs 'Horse' in an Antithetical Saying .............................. 77
2.2.3.3 cOrib 'Crow, Raven' and Neger 'Vulture'
in a Metaphorical Saying ........................ 79
Appendix: Hunting Techniques in Biblical Poetry ................................ 84
Chapter 3: Paradoxical Juxtaposition of Animal Imagery
and  Social Categories  ......................... ................. ....  87
3.1  Bear and  Fool ............................................ ..................  87
3.1.1 The "Better-than" Saying ...................................... 87
3.1.2  D iscussion  of the  Saying  .................................... .............. .... 88
3.2  L ion  and  Sluggard  .................................................................................  89
3.2.1 Sahal 'Lion' ......................................... 90
3.2.2  D iscussion  of the  Saying  ............................................. .............. 90
3.3 Dog and Fool ..................................... .... ...... .........   92
3.3.1 The Comparative  Saying  .............................. ............ ......  92
3.3.2 Keleb 'Dog' ........................................ 93
3.3.3  Discussion  of the  Saying  ........................................ ...... .. 94
3.3.4 The Expansion of Prov. xxvi 11 I in the Septuagint and Ben Sira.. 95
3.4  D og  and  Provoker ........................................  ... 99
Chapter 4: Animals as Models for Human Society ...................... 101
4.1 A Didactic Model within an Admonition: The Industrious Ant .......... 101
4.1.1 The  Ant ............................................................. 101
4.1.2 The Parable .....................................      103
4.1.3 The Septuagint's Expanded Version of the Ant Parable ......... 106
4.2 Animal Habits Worthy of Emulation, in Numerical Sayings .............. 108
4.2.1 Ant, Hyrax, Locust, Gecko ........................................  108
4.2.1.1      ld  'A nt  ........................................ ............. ....   109
4.2.1.2  SaSp n  'Rock  Hyrax' ................. ............... .............  109
4.2.1.3  Arbeh  'Locust' ................ ............. .................   III
4.2.1.4 minimit 'House Gecko' ........................ ................ 116
4.2.1.5  Sum m ary  ................................................. ......................  17
4.2.2 Lavi: '"Lion', Zalii-r AMotnavim 'Rooster'(?), TaviS 'He-goat':
Fleet-footed  Creatures ........................... ....................... 118
4.2.2.1 Laviv   'Lion' .............................................  118
4.2.2.2 ZarizTr Motnavim 'Rooster'(?) ...................................... 119
4.2.2.3 Tavif 'He-goat' ........................... .................. 120
4.2.2.4 The Graded Numerical Sequence ................. 120
4.2.3 Vulture and Serpent: Animal Conduct
that Inspires Human Wonder ..................................  123
4.2.3.1 N&hdl 'Snake, Serpent' ................. ........... ......  123
4.2.3.2  Discussion  of the Saying  ........................ ................  125
Conclusion   ......................................................... 131
General Remarks  .................. ................  .. ..................... 131
Philological Approach ........................................ 132
Literary Paradigms with Reference to the Gattung ................................  133
Literary Paradigms with Reference to Patterns and Clauses .................. 134
Conceptual Aspect ...................................... 135



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Bible, O, T, Proverbs Criticism, interpretation, etc, Symbolism in the Bible, Animals in the Bible