Table of contents for Skeletal muscle damage and repair / Peter M. Tiidus, editor.


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Part I Physiology of Muscle Damage and Repair
CHAPTER 1       Physiology and Mechanisms of Skeletal Muscle Damage                      3
Timothy J. Koh, PhD
Foundations 3  Fiber Type and Injury 4 *Mechanisms of Muscle Injury 5
- Nature of Exercise-Induced Muscle Injury 6 *Summary 12
CHAPTER 2       Human and Animal Experimental Muscle Injury Models                      13
Gordon L. Warren, PhD, and Leigh E. Palubinskas, MPT
Human Muscle Injury Models 13  Animal Muscle Injury Models 21  Summary 35
CHAPTER 3       Histological, Chemical, and Functional Manifestations
of Muscle Damage                                                        37
Stephen P. Sayers, PhD, and Monica J. Hubal, PhD
Histological Evidence of Muscle Damage 37  Biochemical and Histochemical
Evidence of Muscle Damage 40 * Functional Evidence of Muscle Damage 43 >
Summary 48
CHAPTER 4       Neutrophils and Macrophages in Muscle Damage and Repair 49
Francis X. Pizza, PhD
The Timing and Mechanism of Neutrophil and Macrophage
Accumulation 49  The Causative Factors in Neutrophil and Macrophage
Accumulation 52 * Neutrophil- and Macrophage-Induced Injury 53 
Neutrophil- and Macrophage-Assisted Muscle Repair 54 - Summary 56
CHAPTER 5       Muscle Soreness and Damage and the Repeated-Bout Effect                 59
Ken Nosaka, PhD
Muscle Soreness 59 * DOMS and Muscle Damage 64 * Repeated-Bout Effect 68
 Summary 75
CHAPTER 6       Satellite Cells and Muscle Repair                                       77
Karin Shortreed, MSc; Adam Johnston, MSc; and Thomas J. Hawke,
PhD
Skeletal Muscle Stem Cell Populations 77 * Muscle Repair and the Myogenic
Satellite Cell 79 * Extrinsic Regulation of Myogenic Satellite Cells 83  Special
Populations, Therapies, and Myogenic Satellite Cells 85  Summary 88
CHAPTER 7       Emerging Molecular Trends in Muscle Damage Research                     89
Douglas J. Mahoney, PhD, and Mark A. Tarnopolsky, MD, PhD
The "Omic" Revolution 90 * Gene Expression 91 * Transcriptomic Technology 93
* Limitations of DNA Microarray Muscle Damage Study 100 -The Future of
Omics in Muscle Damage Research 101  Summary 102
Part II Muscle Damage and Repair in Applied Situations
CHAPTER 8       Changes With Aging                                                    105
Susan V. Brooks, PhD
Physical Frailty 105  Contraction-Induced Injury 106  Increasing Resistance to
Contraction-Induced Injury 111 * Summary 112
CHAPTER 9       Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy                                           113
Tommy G. Gainer, MS; Qiong Wang, MS; Christopher W. Ward, PhD;
and Robert W. Grange, PhD
Overview 113  Dystrophin Structure, Glycoprotein Complex, and Gene 114 *
Scientific Investigation 117 * Issues for Investigation 118  Summary 122
CHAPTER 10      Estrogen and Gender Effects                                           125
Peter M. Tiidus, PhD
Estrogen Effects on Tissues 125 - Estrogen Effects on Skeletal Muscle
Damage 126 * Reduction of Postexercise Inflammatory Response 129  Possible
Influence of Estrogen on Skeletal Muscle Repair 132 - Summary 134
CHAPTER 11      Diabetes                                                              135
Lisa Stenho-Bittel, PhD, PT; Muhammel AI-Jarrah, PhD, PT;
and S. Janette Williams
Alterations in Glucose Transport 137 * Diabetes and Oxidative Stress 140 *
Fatty Acid Metabolism and Diabetes 140 -Extracellular Matrix Changes 141 
Vascular Complications 142  Exercise 142  Summary 145
CHAPTER 12      Workplace and Other Overuse Injuries                                  147
Mary F. Barbe, PhD, and Ann E. Barr, PT, PhD
Muscle Response to Injuries 147 * Workplace- and Overuse-Related
Muscular Disorders 149  Potential Interventions 161 * Summary 162
CHAPTER 13      Muscle Function During Human Gait                                     163
Michael Pierrynowski, PhD
Characterizing Muscle Function 163  Measuring Muscle Function
During Gait 164 - Muscle Function During Normal Gait 167 - Impact of
Muscle Damage on Gait 170  Summary 172
CHAPTER 14      Overtraining Injuries in Athletic Populations                         173
Teet Seene, PhD; Maria Umnova, PhD; Priit Kaasik, PhD; Karin Alev,
PhD; and Ando Pehme, PhD
Insufficient Recovery and Overload 173  Overtraining Effects on Skeletal
Muscle 174  Changes in Skeletal Muscle Biochemistry 178 * Protein Isoforms
179  Summary 183
CHAPTER 15      Intersubject Variability in Developing Exertional Muscle
Damage                                                                185
Priscilla M. Clarkson, PhD, and Stephen P. Sayers, PhD
Factors Affecting Development of Rhabdomyolysis 185  Variability in Responses to
Eccentric Exercise 187 - Genetic Differences in High Responders 189 * Summary 191
Part III Treatments and Interventions
in Muscle Damage and Repair
CHAPTER 16      Massage Therapy                                                        195
Peter M. Tiidus, PhD
Massage Effects on Indirect Indices of Damage and Repair 195  Massage
Effects on Fibrosis, Muscle Tension, and Mood 200 ' Summary 201
CHAPTER 17      Ultrasound                                                            203
Dawn T. Gulick, PhD, PT
Mechanisms of Ultrasound 203  Effects of Ultrasound on Tissue 208 '
Phonophoresis (or Sonophoresis) 214 ' Efficacy 215 ' Summary 218
CHAPTER 18      Physical Therapy and Related Interventions                             219
Richard M. Lovering, PhD, PT
Muscle Injury and Recovery 219 ' Types of Muscle Injury 221 
Current Therapies 224 * Prevention 228 - Summary 229
CHAPTER 19      Antioxidant Supplementation                                            231
Allan H. Goldfarb, PhD
Potential Mechanisms of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage 231 -
Vitamin Supplementation 234 - Supplementation with Other Antioxidants 239 '
Combined Antioxidant Supplementation 240 - Summary 242
CHAPTER 20      Therapies for Myofascial Trigger Points                               245
Leesa K. Huguenin, MBBS, MS
Defining and Explaining Trigger Points 245  Investigating Trigger Points 248 '
Proposed Therapies 250 ' Summary 254
CHAPTER 21      Hyperbaric Oxygen and Drug Therapies                                  257
Peter M. Tiidus, PhD
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy 257  Drug Therapies 260  Summary 261



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Muscles Wounds and injuries, Muscles Wounds and injuries Treatment, Muscle, Skeletal injuries, Muscle, Skeletal metabolism, Soft Tissue Injuries therapy