Table of contents for Inclusive cultural empathy : making relationships central in counseling and psychotherapy / Paul B. Pedersen, Hugh C. Crethar, Jon Carlson.


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Chapter 1.       Traditional and Nontraditional Perspectix es on
Empathy, Help-Seeking, and Healthy Outcomes ....... 7
The Historical Roots of Empathy ........ ....................  8
Cultural Assumptions of Empathy: A Critique ........ 12
Globalization of Counseling and Psychotherapy ..... 14
The Inclusion of Formal and Informal
Support Systems   ...................... ..... ............. ...  16
Conclusion: Possibilities for Empathy ................. 20
Chapter 2.       Toward More Inclusive Empathy:
A Survey of Relational Worldviews and
Alternative M odes of Helping   ............... ....................  23
The Importance of Collectivistic and
Individualistic  Theories  .....................  ....................  24
Chapter 6.       Intellectual Understanding: Race, Gender,
Religion, and  Spirituality  .......................................  115
Key Cultural Identity Constructs .......... .............. 116
The Importance of Salience ........... ................ 117
Race   ............. .................  ...............  119
Gender ..........................      ............... 125
Religion/Spirituality  .........................  ..........  129
Conclusion   .....................      ...............  134
Chapter 7.       Intellectual Understanding: Examining
Other Key Cultural Identity Constructs ................ 135
Affectional Orientation  ....................  ................  135
Age   .............................. .... ...............  139
Physical and Mental Capacity Issues ..... ............. 144,
Class and Socioeconomic Status ........... ............. 145
Convergence   and  Salience  ...................................  151
Final Thoughts on Intellectual Understa iding ..... 151
Chapter 8.       Integral Skills: Hearing Our Culture Teach-rs
Through  Empathy    ......................... ..... ...........  155
Purpose of Internal Dialogue  .................................  156
The Triad Training Model as a Way to F ractice
Hearing Internal Dialogue ......       .................. 161
Debriefing  ................ ... . ............... ...........   164
Other Internal Dialogue Training Models ............. 167
Reflection  of Feelings  ........................ .........   169
Reflection of Meanings ................. ............... 175
Combining Feeling and Meaning:
A Balancing Act ..........   ......... ........  . 177
C onclusion  ........................................ ............  178
Chapter 9.       Integral Skills: Microskills for Inclusive
Cultural Empathy ......................................  181
Mistakes and Recoveries .......        ................. 182
Articulating the Problem From the
Client's Perspective  ............................ .......   183
Recognizing Client Resistance to the
Helper or Helping Process  .................  ...............  184
Overcoming Defensiveness Toward Clients ........ 185
Developing Multicultural Competencies
With the Triad Training Model ......................... 186
Demonstrating the Triad Training
Model in Action .........         ............. ......195
Conclusion   ..................... ................. 198
Chapter 10.      Empowerment Appr ications of Inclusive
Cultural Empathy    ............................................  199
Multiculturalism Is Inclusive and
Broadly  Defined  .......................... .............. ..  200
Empowerment T hrough Inclusive
Cultural Empath' ........  ...................      202
The Dangers of ( ultural Encapsulation
and Exclusion   .. ........................................  ... 209
The Intrapersonal Cultural Grid ......................... 210
The Interpersonl I Cultural Grid ......................... 211
Conclusion   ...... ............ .............. ............ 222
Chapter 11.      Conclusion: Develeping Multicultural
Awareness, Knowle Ige, and Skill ........................... 223
Multiculturalism as a Fourth Force ...................... 224
Culture-Centerec Advocacy Competencies ....... 228
The Awareness-i nowledge-Skill Model ........... 230
The Benefits of IN ulticultural Awareness ............ 232
The Generic Imp ortance of
Multicultural Kn )wledge ....................... 233
The Generic Apj lication of Multicultural Skill .... 235
C onclusion  ........................................  241
Appendix A: Guidelines for the Four Synthetic Cultures .................. 243
Appendix B: Practicing Inclusive Cultural Empathy
W  ith  Synthetic Culturts  .........................................  249
References  .................. .................  ............ ...........  255
A uthor  Index  .................................. ........................................  277
Subject Index  .............................................. ................. .  285
About the Authors ..................................      ................ 299



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Cross-cultural counseling, Psychiatry, Transcultural, Ethnopsychology, Counselor and client, Therapist and patient