Table of contents for Mobile broadband multimedia networks : techniques, models and tools for 4G / edited by Luís M. Correia.


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I  Introduction                                                                      I
1.1 Trends and evolution                                                          1
1.2 Scope of the book                                                             3
2 Transmission techniques                                                            6
2.1 Introduction                                                                  6
2.2 OFDM systems                                                                  7
2.2.1 Introduction                                                            7
2.2.2 OFDM: a very dynamic signal                                             9
2.2.3 Enhancing OFDM systems                                                 15
2.3 CDMA systems                                                                 21
2.3.1 Introduction                                                           21
2.3.2 Wideband CDMA                                                          23
2.3.3 Time division CDMA                                                     25
2.3.4  Multicarrier CDMA                                                     28
References                                                                       29
3 Signal processing                                                                 35
3.1 Introduction                                                                 35
3.2 Modulation and coding                                                        37
3.2.1 Advanced coding and modulation issues                                  38
3.2.2 Ultra wide bandwidth                                                   41
3.2.3 System performance evaluation                                          43
3.2.4 Implementation issues                                                  45
3.3 Equalisation                                                                 51
3.3.1  Introduction                                                          51
3.3.2 Transmission model                                                     52
3.3.3 Pre-equalisation                                                       53
3.3.4  SISO equalisation                                                     57
3.3.5 MIMO) equalisation                                                     59
3.4 Synchronisation and channel state estimation                                 65
3.4.1  Iterative technique                                                   66
3.4.2 Channel state estimation and prediction                                72
3.4.3 Performance evaluation and fundamental limits                          75
3.4.4 Sequence synchronisation technique                                     77
3.5  Multi-user systems and multi-user detection                                       79
3.5.1 Multi-user MIMO transmission                                                80
3.5.2  Multi-user detectors for DS-CDMA                                           82
3.5.3  Multi-user detection for MC-CDMA with spatial diversity                    88
3.6  Link adaptation and rate-adaptive systems                                         90
3.6.1 Introduction to link adaptation                                             90
3.6.2 Impact of imperfect channel state information                               92
3.6.3  Link adaptation in MIMO systems                                            94
3.6.4  Link adaptation in OFDM systems                                           102
3.6.5  Link adaptation in current and upcoming wireless standards                104
References                                                                            107
4  Propagation modelling and channel characterisation                                    119
4.1 Introduction                                                                      119
4.2  EM theory and diffuse scattering                                                 120
4.2.1 Integral methods                                                           120
4.2.2  Differential equation methods                                             124
4.2.3  Ray methods                                                               127
4.3  Deterministic propagation modelling                                              129
4.3.1 Introduction                                                               129
4.3.2 Input database issues                                                      130
4.3.3  Electromagnetic models                                                    134
4.3.4  Ray models                                                                136
4.3.5  Advanced techniques for ray models                                        139
4.3.6  Applications of ray models                                                146
4.3.7  Simplified or hybrid models                                               152
4.4  Channel measurements and parameter estimation                                    157
4.4.1 Measurement scenarios                                                      157
4.4.2  Channel sounding techniques                                                158
4.4.3  Parameter estimation                                                      160
4.4.4  Device performance and reliability of channel structure estimates         165
4.5  Channel characterisation                                                         167
4.5.1 Introduction                                                               167
4.5.2  Statistical processing of measurements                                    168
4.5.3  Path loss and building penetration                                        169
4.5.4  Long-term fading                                                          176
4.5.5  Narrowband short-term fading                                              178
4.5.6  Wideband short-term fading                                                181
4.5.7  Temporal and angular dispersion                                           186
4.5.8  Fading prediction                                                         198
References                                                                            202
5  Antennas and diversity: from narrow band to ultra wide band                           218
5.1 Introduction                                                                      218
5.2  Antenna performance assessment of mobile handsets                                219
5.2.1 Introduction                                                               219
5.2.2  Figures of merit                                                          220
5.2.3  Measurement methods                                                       222
5.2.4  Factors influencing the measurement accuracy                              226
5.2.5  Figure of merit comparisons                                               246
5.2.6  Handset design aspects                                                    248
5.3 Diversity techniques                                                           253
5.3.1 Introduction: diversity, an old concept with renewed interest            253
5.3.2  Diversity on receivers                                                  254
5.3.3  Diversity in the context of MIMO techniques                             259
5.4  Ultra Wide Band                                                               263
5.4.1 Introduction                                                             263
5.4.2  Radio channel measurements                                              264
5.4.3  Radio channel models                                                    268
5.4.4  Antenna aspects                                                         269
References                                                                         270
6  MIMO channel modelling                                                             277
6.1 Introduction                                                                   277
6.2 Scenarios                                                                      279
6.2.1 Introduction                                                             279
6.2.2  Concept                                                                 280
6.2.3 Indoor scenarios                                                         281
6.2.4  Outdoor scenarios                                                       283
6.3  Physically motivated MIMO channel modelling and simulation                    287
6.3.1 Introduction                                                             287
6.3.2  Radio channel modelling                                                 288
6.3.3  Simulation                                                              296
6.3.4  MIMO hardware channel emulators                                         300
6.4  Antenna configurations                                                        302
6.4.1 Quality measures for MIMO antennas                                       303
6.4.2  Power considerations                                                    308
6.4.3 Integration of MIMO antennas into handsets                               310
6.4.4  Summary and future topics                                               314
6.5  Analytical MIMO channel models                                                315
6.5.1 Correlation-based models                                                 315
6.5.2  Coupling-based models                                                   317
6.5.3  Comparing correlation matrices                                          319
6.5.4  Model performnnance comparison for Rayleigh channels                    319
6.5.5  Practical use of analytical MIMO channel models                         325
6.6  Multi-antenna radio measurements and results                                  326
6.6.1 Introduction                                                             326
6.6.2  Directional multi-antenna measurements                                  326
6.6.3  MIMO measurements of combined channel and antenna responses             339
6.7  Model validation and related metrics                                          348
6.7.1 Introduction                                                             348
6.7.2  About experimental validation                                           349
6.7.3  Metrics for multiplexing gain                                           350
6.7.4  Multipath richness and multipath structure                              355
6.7.5  Spatial correlation                                                     359
6.7.6  A metric for MIMO channel diversity                                     361
6.7.7 A metric for beamforming                                                 362
6.7.8  Miscellaneous                                                           363
6.8 The COST 273 MIMO channel model                                                364
6.8.1 Introduction                                                             364
6.8.2  Considered environments                                                 364
6.8.3 Generic channel model                                                   366
6.8.4  Parameter values in the different environments                         378
References                                                                        384
7  MIMO systems                                                                      398
7.1 Introduction                                                                  398
7.2 Information-theoretic aspects                                                 399
7.2.1 Capacity of single link MIMO systems                                    399
7.2.2  Capacity of multi-user MIMO systems                                    401
7.2.3 Capacity of MIMO systems with relays                                    402
7.3 Array processing and beamforming                                              402
7.3.1 Antenna selection                                                       403
7.3.2  Beamforming                                                            403
7.3.3  Uplink array processing                                                403
7.3.4  Downlink array processing                                              405
7.3.5 Channel estimation                                                      407
7.3.6 Time-varying channels                                                   409
7.3.7 Applications of array processing                                        410
7.3.8 Eigenbeamforming                                                        412
7.4  MIMO transmission techniques                                                 417
7.4.1 Introduction                                                            417
7.4.2 Space-time transmitter design                                           417
7.4.3 Space-time receiver design                                              420
7.4.4  Space-time transceiver performance                                     423
7.4.5  Real-valued notation and its applications                              427
7.4.6  Distributed and cooperative space-time systems                         430
7.5 Network aspects                                                               432
7.5.1 Capacity of MIMO systems                                                432
7.5.2  Multihop MIMO architectures                                            435
References                                                                        435
8  Radio network aspects                                                             443
8.1 Introduction                                                                  443
8.2  MORANS                                                                       444
8.2.1 Goals of the MORANS initiative                                          444
8.2.2  Structure of the reference model                                       444
8.2.3  Data model for a scenario and XML schema                               452
8.2.4  RRM parameters                                                         454
8.2.5 Results and examples of usability                                       454
8.3 Techniques for radio network optimlnisation                                   460
8.3.1  Resource allocation and packet scheduling techniques in wireless cellular systems  460
8.3.2 Joint link and network optimisation with MIMO systems                   462
8.4  Methodologies for performance evaluation of radio networks                   467
8.4.1 Theoretical connectivity results                                        467
8.4.2  Some applications                                                      469
8.4.3  Markov chain models for protocols                                      471
8.4.4  Radio Resource Management and mobility models                          472
8.5 Services and traffic modelling                                                473
8.5.1 Mobile services                                                         473
8.5.2 Traffic source modelline                                                474
8.5.3 Spatial traffic demand estimation                                       477
8.5.4  Temporal traffic demand prediction                                     479
8.6 Wireless LANs                                                                 480
8.7 Personal area networks                                                        487
8.8 Wireless ad-hoc networks                                                      492
8.8.1 Distributed wireless networks                                           493
8.8.2  Wireless sensor networks                                               495
8.9 Terminal location determination                                               496
8.9.1 Introduction                                                            496
8.9.2  ToA techniques employing channel modelling                             497
8.9.3  Application of propagation models                                      498
8.9.4  Assessment and validation                                              499
8.9.5 GSM results                                                             501
References                                                                        502
9  UMTS radio networks                                                               511
9.1 Introduction                                                                  511
9.2 UMTS radio network planning                                                   511
9.2.1 Planning fundamentals                                                   511
9.2.2  Radio parameter planning                                               514
9.2.3  Automatic planning algorithms                                          516
9.2.4  Alternative infrastructure solutions                                   519
9.3 UTRAN optimisation and radio resource management                              520
9.3.1  Soft handover and site selection diversity transmission                520
9.3.2  BS parameter adjustment                                               :524
9.3.3 Call Admission Control                                                  531
9.3.4  Genetic algorithms and evolution strategies                            533
9.4  UTRAN performance evaluation                                                 534
9.4.1 Static vs. dynamic                                                      534
9.4.2  Semi-analytical                                                        536
9.4.3 Effect of link level on performance                                     538
9.5 3G and beyond: network evolution                                              540
9.5.1 Beam switching techniques                                               540
9.5.2  Smart antennas                                                         541
9.5.3  HSDPA channels: impact of multiple antennas                            544
9.5.4  Future network scenarios                                               546
References                                                                        547
Appendices:
Appendix A: About COST 273                                                           553
Appendix B: List of participating institutions                                       557



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Broadband communication systems, Wireless communication systems, Télécommunications à large bande, Systèmes de, Transmission sans fil, Breedband, gttDraadloze communicatie, gttMultimedia, gttTechnologie, gtt