Table of contents for The science and engineering of materials / Donald R. Askeland, Pradeep P. Phulé.


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Chapter 1    Inroduction to Materials Science and Engineering  3
1-1     What is Materials Science and Engineering? 4
1-2     Classification of Materials 7
1-3     Functional Classification of Materials 10
1-4     Classification of Materials Based on Structure 13
1-5     Environmental and Other Effects 14
1-6     Materials Design and Selection 16
SUMMARY 17  n  GLOSSARY  18  m  PROBLEMS  20
Chapter 2    Atomic Shtucture  23
2-1     The Structure of Materials: Technological Relevance 24
2-2     The Structure of the Atom  25
2-3     The Electronic Structure of the Atom  29
2-4     The Periodic Table 30
2-5     Atomic Bonding 33
2-6     Binding Energy and Interatomic Spacing 39
SUMMARY  42  m  GLOSSARY  43  *  PROBLEMS  46
Chapter 3   ARomic and Ionic Arrangements   49
3-1     Short-Range Order versus Long-Range Order 50
3-2     Amorphous Materials 52
3-3     Lattice, Unit Cells, Basis, and Crystal Structures 54
3-4     Allotropic or Polymorphic Transformations 62
3-5     Points, Directions, and Planes in the Unit Cell 63
3-6    Interstitial Sites 74
3-7     Crystal Structures of Ionic Materials 76
3-8     Covalent Structures 81
3-9     Diffraction Techniques for Crystal Structure Analysis 84
SUMMARY  89  *  GLOSSARY  90  N  PROBLEMS  93
Chapter 4    Imperfections in the Rtomic and Ionic Rrrangements  101
4-1     Point Defects 102
4-2     Other Point Defects 108
4-3     Dislocations 111
4-4     Significance of Dislocations 119
4-5     Schmid's Law  120
4-6     Influence of Crystal Structure 122
4-7     Surface Defects 124
4-8     Importance of Defects 129
SUMMARY 132  =  GLOSSARY 133  m  PROBLEMS 135
Chapter S    Rtom and Ion Movements in Materials  143
5-1     Applications of Diffusion 144
5-2     Stability of Atoms and Ions 147
5-3     Mechanisms for Diffusion 149
5-4     Activation Energy for Diffusion 151
5-5     Rate of Diffusion [Fick's First Law] 152
5-6     Factors Affecting Diffusion 156
5-7     Permeability of Polymers 164
5-8     Composition Profile (Fick's Second Law) 165
5-9     Diffusion and Materials Processing 170
SUMMARY 174  w  GLOSSARY 175  m  PROBLEMS 177
Chapter 6    Mechanical Properties: Part One  183
6-1     Technological Significance  184
6-2     Terminology for Mechanical Properties 185
6-3     The Tensile Test: Use of the Stress-Strain Diagram  191
6-4     Properties Obtained from the Tensile Test 195
6-5     True Stress and True Strain 203
6-6     The Bend Test for Brittle Materials 204
6-7     Hardness of Materials 207
6-8     Strain Rate Effects and Impact Behavior 209
6-9     Properties Obtained from the Impact Test 210
SUMMARY 213  *  GLOSSARY  214  n  PROBLEMS  217
Chapter 7    Mechanical Properties: Part Two  223
7-1     Fracture Mechanics 224
7-2     The Importance of Fracture Mechanics 226
7-3     Microstructural Features of Fracture in Metallic Materials 230
7-4     Microstructural Features of Fracture in Ceramics, Glasses,
and Composites 234
7-5     Weibull Statistics for Failure Strength Analysis 236
7-6     Fatigue 241
7-7     Results of the Fatigue Test 244
7-8     Application of Fatigue Testing 246
7-9     Creep, Stress Rupture, and Stress Corrosion 250
7-10    Evaluation of Creep Behavior 252
7-11    Use of Creep Data 254
SUMMARY  256  *  GLOSSARY  256  *  PROBLEMS  258
Chapter 8    Strain Hardening and Innealing  265
8-1     Relationship of Cold Working to the Stress-Strain Curve 266
8-2     Strain-Hardening Mechanisms 271
8-3     Properties versus Percent Cold Work 273
8-4     Microstructure, Texture Strengthening, and Residual Stresses 275
8-5     Characteristics of Cold Working 280
8-6     The Three Stages of Annealing 282
8-7     Control of Annealing 285
8-8     Annealing and Materials Processing 287
8-9     Hot Working 289
SUMMARY  291 *  GLOSSARY  292  n  PROBLEMS  294
Chapter 9    Principles of Solidification  301
9-1     Technological Significance 302
9-2   Nucleation 303
-3    Applications of Controlled Nucleation 307
-4    Growth Mechanisms 308
-5    Solidification Time and Dendrite Size 310
-6    Cooling Curves 315
-7    Cast Structure 316
-8    Solidification Defects 318
-9    Casting Processes for Manufacturing Components 323
-10   Continuous Casting and Ingot Casting 323
9-11    Directional Solidification [DS], Single Crystal Growth, and
Epitaxial Growth 328
9-12    Solidification of Polymers and Inorganic Glasses 330
9-13   Joining of Metallic Materials 331
SUMMARY 333  *  GLOSSARY 334  *  PROBLEMS 337
Chapter 10  Solid Solutions and Phase Equilibrium  345
10-1   Phases and the Phase Diagram  346
10-2   Solubility and Solid Solutions 350
10-3   Conditions for Unlimited Solid Solubility 353
10-4   Solid-Solution Strengthening 355
10-5   Isomorphous Phase Diagrams 357
10-6   Relationship Between Properties and the Phase Diagram  365
10-7   Solidification of a Solid-solution Alloy 367
10-8   Nonequilibrium Solidification and Segregation 369
SUMMARY 373  *  GLOSSRRY 374  *  PROBLEMS 376
Chapter 11  Dispersion Strengthening and Eutectic Phase Diagrams  383
11-1   Principles and Examples Of Dispersion Strengthening 384
11-2   Intermetallic Compounds 385
11-3   Phase Diagrams Containing Three-Phase Reactions 387
11-4   The Eutectic Phase Diagram  390
11-5   Strength of Eutectic Alloys 401
11-6   Eutectics and Materials Processing 406
11-7   Nonequilibrium Freezing in the Eutectic System  407
SUMMRRY 409 =  GLOSSARY 410  *  PROBLEMS 412
Chapter 12  Dispersion Strengthening bq Phase Transformations and Heat
Treatment  419
12-1   Nucleation and Growth in Solid-State Reactions 420
12-2   Alloys Strengthened by Exceeding the Solubility Limit 424
12-3   Age or Precipitation Hardening 427
12-4   Applications of Age-hardened Alloys 427
12-5   Microstructural Evolution in Age or Precipitation Hardening 428
12-6   Effects of Aging Temperature and Time 430
12-7   Requirements for Age Hardening 432
12-8   Use of Age-Hardenable Alloys at High Temperatures 432
12-9   The Eutectoid Reaction 433
12-10 Controlling the Eutectoid Reaction 438
12-11 The Martensitic Reaction and Tempering 443
12-12 The Shape-Memory Alloys (SMAs) 447
SUMMARY 448  *  GLOSSARY 450  *  PROBLEMS 451
Chapter 13 Heat Treatment of Steels and Cast Irons 4S9
13-1    Designations and Classification of Steels 460
13-2   Simple Heat Treatments 464
13-3   Isothermal Heat Treatments 466
13-4   Quench and Temper Heat Treatments 469
13-5    Effect of Alloying Elements 474
13-6   Application of Hardenability 476
13-7   Specialty Steels 479
13-8   Surface Treatments 481
13-9   Weldability of Steel 483
13-10 Stainless Steels 484
13-11 Cast Irons 487
SUMMARY 494  =  GLOSSARY 494  *  PROBLEMS 491
Chapter 14  Nonferrous RHIlous  503
14-1   Aluminum Alloys 504
14-2    Magnesium and Beryllium Alloys 511
14-3   Copper Alloys 513
14-4    Nickel and Cobalt Alloys 516
14-5   Titanium Alloys 519
14-6   Refractory and Precious Metals 526
SUMMARY S28  *  GLOSSARY S208  PROBLEMS S29
Chapter 15  Ceramic Materials  533
15-1   Applications of Ceramics 534
15-2   Properties of Ceramics 536
15-3   Synthesis and Processing of Ceramic Powders 537
15-4   Characteristics of Sintered Ceramics 542
15-5   Inorganic Glasses 544
15-6   Glass-Ceramics 550
15-7   Processing and Applications of Clay Products 552
15-8   Refractories 553
1.5-9  Other Ceramic Materials 555
SUMMARY 557  =  GLOSSARY  558  *  PROBLEMS  S60
Chapter 16  Polqmers   563
16-1   Classification of Polymers 564
16-2   Addition and Condensation Polymerization 568
16-3   Degree of Polymerization 572
16-4   Typical Thermoplastics 574
16-5   Structure-Property Relationships in Thermoplastics 575
16-6   Effect of Temperature on Thermoplastics 580
16-.7 Mechanical Properties of Thermoplastics 586
16-8   Elastomers (Rubbers) 591
16-9   Thermosetting Polymers 596
16-10 Adhesives 598
16-1]I Polymer Processing and Recycling 599
SUMMARY 604  =  GLOSSARY 60S  m  PROBLEMS 607
Chapter 17  Composites: Teamwork and Sqnergy in Materials  611
17-    Dispersion-Strengthened Composites 613
17-2   Particulate Composites 615
17-3   Fiber-Reinforced Composites 620
17-4   Characteristics of Fiber-Reinforced Composites 625
17-5   Manufacturing Fibers and Composites 632
17-6   Fiber-Reinforced Systems and Applications 636
17-7   Laminar Composite Materials 643
17-8   Examples and Applications of Laminar Composites 645
17-9   Sandwich Structures 646
SUMMARY 648  *  GLOSSARY 648  *  PROBLEMS 650
Chapter 18   Conlsrruction Maleridls  65S
1 8 1  The Structure of Wood 656
18-2   Moisture Content and Density of Wood 659
18-3   Mechanical Properties of Wood 660
18 4   Expansion and Contraction of Wood 662
18 5   Plywood 663
8-6-6  Concrete Materials 663
Properties of Concrete 665
:  Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete 670
Asphalt 671
SUMMARY  872  *  GLOSSARY  872 1  PROBLEMS  873
Chapter 19       0"1huic i"1 e uv F17
1     Ohm's Law and Electrical Conductivity 678
. 9-.  Band Structures of Solids 683
3   Conductivity of Metals and Alloys 686
S3-4  Superconductivity 690
5  Conductivity in Other Materials 694
St.9 6  Semiconductors 697
19- 7  Applications of Semiconductors 705
_3-S   Insulators and Dielectric Properties 709
. -.9   Polarization in Dielectrics 709
, 0 V Electrostriction, Piezoelectricity, Pyroelectricity, and Ferroelectricity 713
SUMMARY 718      GLOSSORY 719  *  PROBLEMS  721
Chapfer 20   Mpno?jr Mepf;      75
.20-1   Classification of Magnetic Materials 726
20-2    Magnetic Dipoles and Magnetic Moments 726
'-. 3  Magnetization, Permeability, and the Magnetic Field 728
204. Diamagnetic, Paramagnetic, Ferromagnetic, Ferrimagnetic,
and Superparamagnetic Materials 731
2_-3.   Domain Structure and the Hysteresis Loop 734
0-6 U   The Curie Temperature 737
C0-7    Applications of Magnetic Materials 738
9?08    Metallic and Ceramic Magnetic Materials 745
SUMMARY  751 *  GLOSSARY  752  *  PROBLEMS  753
Chapter 21   Pbi-S  c IaIeI L   '57
:   The Electromagnetic Spectrum  758
.1 -2   Refraction, Reflection, Absorption, and Transmission 758
2   3  Selective Absorption, Transmission, or Reflection 771
.      Examples and Use of Emission Phenomena 772
Fiber-Optic Communication System  781
SUMMARY 781 N   GLOSSARY  782  *  PROBLEMS  783
Chapter 22  Thermal Properties of Materials  787
22-1    Heat Capacity and Specific Heat 788
22-2   Thermal Expansion 791
22-3   Thermal Conductivity 795
22-4   Thermal Shock 799
SUMMARY 801 =  GLOSSRRY 801 *  PROBLEMS 802
Chapter 23  Corrosion dnd Wear  805
23-1   Chemical Corrosion 806
23-2    Electrochemical Corrosion 808
23-3   The Electrode Potential in Electrochemical Cells 811
23-4   The Corrosion Current and Polarization 815
23-5   Types of Electrochemical Corrosion 816
23-6   Protection Against Electrochemical Corrosion 821
23-7    Microbial Degradation and Biodegradable Polymers 828
23-8   Oxidation and Other Gas Reactions 828
23-9   Wear and Erosion 832
SUMMARY 834  *  GLOSSARY 835 n  PROBLEMS 837



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Materials Textbooks