Table of contents for Survival guide for general, organic, and biochemistry : with math review / Richard Morrison, Charles H. Atwood, Joel A. Caughran.


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Module 1
Metric System, Significant Figures,
Dimensional Analysis, Density and Heat Transfer
1.  S cienti ic  N otation  ............................................ .......... ................ ...........................
2.  M etric  System  ........... .. .. ....  .......  ... ... .. ......-. .. ..... ......................................... 2
3.  Significant  F igures  ......... .. ...........  ........... ............   .....................................................   4
4.;  Calculations  and  Sign ificant Figures .........--.............. ..................................................  5
5.  Dimensional Analysis..                      ...................        ........... ..6......... 6
6 .  D en sity  ................... .......... ............. ... .. ........... .......... . ............ ......... ........................... 8
7 .  H eat  T ran sfer  ................................. ...................................................................... 9
Module 2
Atomic Theory, Periodicity,
Chemical Bonding and Inorganic Nomenclature
1. Proton, Neutron, and Electron Numbers in a Positive Ion .................................. 12
2.  Principal Q uantum    N um ber, n  ........ ....... .... .  ....... ................. ............ ....................... 12
3.  O rbital Q uantum  N um  ber,  ..............  ....... .............  ............ .... .......................... ..13
4.  Spin  Q uantum    N um ber, m , - .........................................................  ............ .......... ......   13
5. Electronic Structure from the Periodic Chart .....       ............... .. ............ . ...... ....... 13
6.  A tom ic  R adii ... ........... .. ........ ... .......... ................ ...........................................
7.  Ionization  Energy  ......         5................... ..............        .......  ......  5
8.  E lectronegativ ity  ...... ..............  ......... ............................ ........................................... 16
9. Determine if a Compound is Ionic or Covalent ............................ ................... .. . 17
10. Lew  is  D ot Structures  of A tom s ...  .......................................................................  ... 17
11. Sim ple  Ionic  C om p ounds ................. ............................................................................ 18
12. Drawing Lewis Dot Structures of Ionic Compounds .........         .................................... 18
13. Simple Covalent Compounds ...... ..... .................................. 19
14. Com  pounds Containing    M  ultiple  Bonds ..........................  -7........................... ..............
15. R esonance  Structures ...... I.. . ......... ............... ... . ... ..... ................... ............... . ..   22
16. Polar or Nonpolar Covalent Bonds in Compounds.........          ...............  -.....................23
17. Simple Chemical Nomenclature.                    ................  ...........  .............. ....23
Module 3
Nuclear Chemistry
1.  A lpha  D ecay..................          .............................  ..............................  26
2.  Blpha Decay
2 .  B eta  D ecay  ........ -......  .. ....................... .. .................... ...... ............... .................. .........   2 6
3.  G am m a  D ecay  .......................................... ......................... ... ..............................   27
4.  N uclear R eactions  .. ....... ....... .............  -- . ....................  . ...... .......... ..... ...27
5.  H alf-lives, ti/2, for Radioactive  Decay  ............. ........... ............. ...... ...... ....... ........... 28
6.  R adiation  D osim etry  ........... .......... ........................................................ .....................29
7.  Fission  and  Fusion  R eactions........................  -- ...... ......... ... ....................................... 29
Module 4
Chemical Reactions and Stoichiometry
1.  D eterm  ining  the  M olar M ass ....................................................................................... 32
2. Determining the Number of Moles .........................        ............ ................................... ... 32
3. Determining the Number of Molecules or Formula UnitS .......................................... 32
4. Determining the Number of Atoms or Ions ............................................................... 32
5. Determining the Mass of Molecules or Formula Units of a Substance ..33...                   _ ............. 33
6.  C om  bined  E quations   3...3......... .................. ..................................................... ........... .. 33
7.  C hem  ical R eactions   ..........  ................ .................3........ ..............................................   34
8.  B alancing   Chem   ical Equations ........... ........ .. ........ ... ...... ......... .......... ......... ................   34
9.  Sim  ple  Reactions   Stoichiom  etry              ........ ............ . ..... ..................................................... 35
10. L im iting  R eagents........................................................ ..........................................   36
11. P ercent  Y ield  ................................................................................................................ 37
12. Reduction-O    xidation  Reactions ........................................... ......................................  37
13. M  etathesis  R eactions  ......... ................................ ............... ........ ............................. ...... 38
14. Predicting Products of Metathesis Reactions ....           ... .... .. ......... .................................. 39
Module 5
States of Matter, Solutions and Colligative Properties
1.  G as  L aw s  ............................. ... . ... ....... ........... ............ ........................ .... .......... ............. 4 3
2 .  L iqu id s  .......................... .......................4............................... ........................ ........... 44
3 .  S o lid s  ....... ..................... .......... .. .....................................................................  4 5
4. Solubility of a Solute in a Given Solvent .............. ..........  ............................... ............. 48
5. Increasing the Solubility of a Solute in a Given Solvent ..4..8.....          ...... ............ .... 48
6.  C oncentrations    U nits .. ...... ...... .... ............ ...... ........ ...... ..... ............. . ............................ 49
7.  Solution   D ilution  ..................... . ............ ................. ......... .............. .................. ........... 51
8. Freezing Point Depression of Aqueous Solutions ............................... ....................... 51
9.  O sm  olarity  of  Solutions  ....... .. ............. ............... ............ ....... ........................... ....... 52
Module 6
Chemical Kinetics and Equilibrium
1.  R eaction  R ates  . ........... ...........  ............. .............. .. ...............    54
2.  C ollision  T heory  ................. _.......4......................... ...... .... ................ ......................... 54
3.  R ate  C onstants  ...... ............. ... ............... ............................. ..... .... ......... ... ...................   56
4. Form    of the Equilibrium     Constant ................ ............................................ ............ 57
5. Value of the Equilibrium Constant ................ _..... ..................... ................... ........ 57
6.  Le  C hitelier's  Principle  .......  .. ................ ............. ................................  58
Module 7
Acids and Bases
1.  A rrhenius   Acid-B  ase  Theory  ........................................  ............................ .................   61
2. Bronsted-Lowry Acid-Base Theory.............................................................................62
3.  K , and  pK  a  V alues  ........ ..........................  ...... . .............._.................................65
4.  pH  , pO H , and  K w,  ...... .....  ................. ............... ................ ........... .............................. . 66
5. Solution Concentration from a Titration ....... ........................   ........................................67
6.  B uffer  Solutions  ....................... .... .... ....... ......... ............................................... 67
Module 8
Functional Groups and Organic Nomenclature
1. General Guide to the IUPAC System of Organic Nomenclature ................................ 70
2. Properties and Nomenclature of Alkanes ......7.........................................................   72
3. Properties and Nomenclature of Cycloalkanes ......... .....      ................. .................75
4. Cis/Trans Nomenclature for Cycloalkanes ................................................................. 78
5. Properties and Nomenclature of Alkenes ................................................................ ... 79
6. Properties and Nomenclature of Cycloalkenes .....          ................................................. 81
7. Properties and Nomenclature of Alkynes ............................................. ...................... 82
8. Properties and Nomenclature of Benzene and its Derivatives.....................   ......... .......82
9. Properties and Nomenclature of Alcohols ..... ...................   ............. ................. ... 84
10. Properties and  Nom   enclature  of Ethers ......  ............................ .... ......................... ...... 85
S11. Properties and Nomenclature of Thiols ................................................................. 85
12. Properties and Nomenclature of Amines ...           .    ... ......................................... ................. 86
13. Properties and Nomenclature of Aldehydes and Ketones ............................................ 87
14. Properties and Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids ..................................................... 88
15. Properties and Nomenclature of Acid Anhydrides ...........         ............... ..................89
16. Properties and Nomenclature of Esters .................................................................. 90
17. Properties and Nomenclature of Amides ..................J..i............................... 90
Module 9
Stereoisomerism
1.  D efin ition s.. ...............  ............ . ...........................  .............................................  92
2.  V isualizing  M olecules  ................................................................................................  93
3 .  E n antiom ers  .... -........ ........... . ................ ................ .... ... ....... ..... ........ ........ ................... .......   94
4 .  S tereocenters  ............................  ..........  .................................. ....................................  9 5
5.  D iastereom  ers  ....... ....................... ......................................... ......................... .............. 96
6.  M  eso  Com pounds  9.... ..   *. .  ............. ... ............ ......................................... 96
7.  Specifying   C onfigurations  ... ......... ....... .......... . ....... ........ ................... ......................... 98
8.  O ptical  A ctivity ............. ..................  .................................................. ......................... 99
9.  Sam  ple  Exercises  ... .......... ......... .. .. ...  ......... ... ........ ......... 100
Module 10
Substitution Reactions
1.  H alogenation  of  A lkanes...................................... ..................................................... 105
2.  A rom atic  Substitutions   ...... - .............. .............................. ............. ...................  .... I 05
3. Substitutions on Carboxylic Acids and their Derivatives ........        ............... ........... ......106
4 .  Sam ple  E xercises  .................................. ...........................  ........................... ..... .......... 108
Module 11
Addition Reactions
1. Adding Symmetric Molecules to Alkenes ..... ................................... ...... ........ I....
2. Adding Asymmetric Molecules to Alkenes (Markovnikov's Rule) ..........               ................  11
3.  N ucleophilic  A dditions  to  Carbonyls.... ..... ............................................................... 1 13
4.  S am ple  E xerc ses  ....... ..... ..... ........ ................. .. ................................t.................... 113
Module 12
Elimination Reactions
1. Dehydration of Alcohols ........... .................... 7............        .......   _ .......  __...... 117
2. Decarboxylation of Carboxylic Acids ............11.....8......8......       ...................................... 118
3.   Sam  ple  E xercises  .................................... ............ ................................ ..................  119
Module 13
Reduction-Oxidation Reactions
I   O  x id ation ................. .... . ............ . ................. ...........................................................   123
2.   O xidation   of  A lkanes  ............ ........................... .................................................... 123
3    Oxidation of Alcohols
a.   Prim  ary  A lcohols  ................................................................................ ............ 123
b.   Secondary    A  lcohols  .....  ............ ... .. .................  .............................. ........... ........... 24
c.   T ertiary  A lcohols  ...... ... _ _.... ................... . ................ ............................... ............ 124
4.   O xidation   of A ldehydes    . .............1...............................2.............. .. ........................... 125
5.   O xidation   of  K etones  ...... ... ........................................ ........ .................. ................. 125
6.   R eduction   ...............................  ......................................................................... ........  12 5
7. Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones........ ....................................................   ...... 125
8.   Sam  ple  Exercises ...................... ...      .......         .... ............   ......................   26
Module 14
Carbohydrates
1.  Fischer   Projections .......   ......................................................  .................... ............... 128
2. D- and L- Nomenclature System             .............. ......................... ................................... 28
3. Cyclic Sugars and Haworth Projections .................... ........................................... 130
4.   R eactions   of  Sugars  ........................................  ... .. ........................ .. . .. ........ .... . . 132
5. Disaccharides and Polysaccharides ..............................................   .........................1.....  33
6.   Sam  ple  E xercises  ... ...... ... ..... . ......... ..... .............. . ..... ...... ........ ............... ................... 135
Module 15
Lipids
1.  T riglycerides    .. ......... ... ...... .... ............... ......................... .......... ...... ........................ 140
2.   H ydrogenation    ............................................................................................................  14 1
3.   Saponification    ............... ...................             ..    .................  ........ ... 142
4 .  C om  plex  L ipids.......................  .............  ........... .................................................4....... 42
5.   S teroids  ...  ... ......... .... ........           ......................_............................... 14 5
6.   Prostaglandins and Leukotrienes .... ...................... ............................... .............1.....  47
7.   Sam  ple  E xercises  ....... ....... ............  ......... ............. ................. ... .................. ............. 48
Module 16
Proteins and Enzymes
I  Peptide  B onds  ......... ... . .5.........  ..5........ .. . . ..... .... ....... ......................... 155
2.  Abbreviated   Peptide  Nam es ...... ... .... ... -  .. . .. ...   ......  .. .... .. . a......  ........... .  ..... .... i.   155
3.  Prim ary  Structure  of Protiens .....-  .. .. ........ .. .....  .. .  .... ...... .  ...... ...   ...... .. . .... .. ... . 156
4.  Secondary  Structure  of Protiens ... ..........  ...............  ........... .......... ........................... .  1 57
5  Tertiary  Structure  of Protiens ......... .  .... .  ......... ............ ... .. .. . . . .. .. .. ................ .  -158
6   Quaternar  Structure of Protiens .         .... .4.......... .     ........ . .158
7,  E nzym es  ........ . ... .......  .................. .......  .........................................  ............. 159
8.  Enzym e  N om enclature ............................ .......  ... .............. ..... ............... ...... . 159
9.  M odels of Enzym e  Activity  . ........... .  ... .. .  . ........ ..  . . . ...... ...  .. ..  ..   . .. .   .....  ......... . 1 6 0
Module 17
Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids
1.  Purines and  Pyrim idines  .... .... ... . .......  .........;....... ............. ... 163
2.  D raw ing  N ucleosides  ....  -.................. ..... . .. ............. ...... .. . . .... 4...... .....   ......   165
3. Drawing Nucleotides                           ... .-.               .         165
4.  Prim ary  Structure  of N ucleic  Acids ... .. ...  .   ...............  ....... ........ .... ....... -...... ... 166
5. Hydrogen Bonding in Complementary Base Pairs .. ...       ...... -.- ....... .... 167
6.  Differences between  DNA  and RNA...  ......... .... ..... . ..........  .......... -,  ... .............  ...68
Math Review
1I  Scientif ic  and  Engineering  Notation.. .... .....  ..............  0.......... . ... ........  ......  169
R oundi ng of N um be  s ...... . ..... b....  ... ...  ............................ . .. ..... ........ . ...........  17 )
3   1Rearranging  Algebraic Equations  .s............ . 4....... ... .4 *4-BBi..... ..... ....ii ...........i.. 170
4. Logarithms
a.  D efinition  of  Logarithm s  ..... .............. ..... .. . .. .. .................. .... .................  171
b   Significant Figures for L ogarithms .4      .   ....... 4....    .. -.. .  1 72
5.  B asic  Calculator  Ski1 ls .. ........ .... .. ...... .. .... .. ........ . ........ .  .......   . .. ..................... ......  -  172
6.  Sami ple  Exercises  .    .. .  ...   ..     ...  .. ... ....... ........174



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Chemistry Problems, exercises, etc