Table of contents for A short introduction to Stata 8 for biostatistics / Michael Hills, Bianca L. De Stavola.


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0  Getting started                                                        I
1 Sonme basic commands                                                    5
1.1  The births data  .  .  .  ..  ..  ......  . . .                   5
2    A first ook at the data  ...........                             6
1.3  Tables of frequencies ..     ..        .                     .
1.4  Tables of means and other things .  ...                  .   .    9
1.5  Restricting the scope of commands.. .          ..      .         10
1.6  Gneraing new variables .                   ........              10
1.7  Ordering, dropping and keeping  .  .  .   .. . . .  . . .   .    11
1.8  Sorting  data.    ..    .........              .         .  .    12
1.9  Using Stata as a alculator    .          .                       12
1.10  Shortcuts  ..            ............                           13
1..11. Sata  syntax  ............            ...           .         14
1.12  Using the Stata help facilities  .......          ....   ...    14
2  Tabs, menus and dialog boxes                                         17
2.1 Wthere to find the dialog boxes  ....    ..   ..... . .        .  17
2.2  A first look at the data  . . ..                         .       17
23   Tables of frequencies  ........                          ....    19
2,4  Tables of means and other things . ....                       . 20
2.5  Restricting the scope of commands     .  .                  .    21
2.6  Generating new variables .   .                            . .    21
2.7  Ordering, dropping and keeping ...       . .  .    .             22
2.8  Sorting  data  .  ...            ...  .    ..                    22
2.9  Using Stata as a calculator           .    . ...     .           23
3  Housekeeping                                                         24
3.1 Labelling a dataset      .  ... ..     ....                       24
3.2  N otes  ..          . . . . . ..   .  . . . . . . . . .  . .  .  24
3.3  Labelling variables and their values . . .. . .            ..  .  25
3.4  Data types and display ' formats . . .  . . .. . . . .  . .   .   26
3.5  Recoding a variable .......   ..                            . .  ..  27
3.6  Missing values   .   .. . . . . ..                                27
3.7  Dates .                       .                                   2. .8 .  2
3.8  Saving files                                   ........           30
4.2  Data from a spreadsheet ...                                      34
4.3  Data from a wordprocessor..                                       35
4.4  Large datasets   ......                                       .   35
4.5  More about dictionary files               ..         . . .   .    36
4.6  Loading data from the keyboard  .. .... .     . ..        . .     36
47   Dat output ............                                           37
4.8 Import and export to other packages                     . . . .  . 38
5  Graph commands                                                        40
5.1 Box plots ....                              ..                    40
5.2  Histograms                    ...........             ..         41
5 3  Scatter plots  .. .  ....                    ..            ..    42
5.4  Overlaying graphs .  .                 .    .........         . 43
5.5  Line  plots  .......                  ............               43
5.6  Cumulative distribution plots  . . .                    . . .. 4.
5.7  Adding lines .............                                    .  46
5.8  Graph  titles ..       .          . .... ...........      ....   46
5.9  Titles and labels for axes                                       47
5.10 Naming, saving, and combining graphs . . . ...  .  .   .   ....  48
5.11 Printing and exporting graphs  .. ...     . . . ..            .  49
5.12  Sche es       ...      ...........                     .    .    50
5.13  Hep  for graphics . ....  . .  ..  .  .   .   ..          .      50
6.3  Bar charts...........                                             5
6.4  Twoway graphs           ...........                    .       .
6.5  Overlaid twoway graphs            ..........                      56
7  More basic tools                                                     58
7.1  The  return  list  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .  58
7.4  Comparing two means or two proportions .  ....... .              61
7.5  W eights   .     .............                              ..   62
7.6  Repeating commanads for different sub-groups     . ..            63
7.7 Repeating commands for different variables  ... .                 64
8  Data management                                                      67
81 Cleaning data     .........                         ..             67
8.2  String variables   ..                       ....       ...    .  68
8 3  Appendinmg to add more subjects. .. ..                           69
8 4  Merging to add more variables .   .  . . . ... ..70
8.5  Merging to update variables                .           .    .    71
8.6  Unmatched merges    .....                     ........           72
9  Repeated measuremrnets                                               74
9.1  Wide and long coding   ......                      ..            74
"9.2  Graphing repeated melaures                                . .
93     orking at th  group  level  ..... ..........                   76
9.4  Collapsing the daa .  .....                    . . ......        76
9.5  Reshaping from long to wide and vice versa  ...            . .   7
9.6  Use of system variables with bv:  .. . .  . . ....       .  . .  78
9.7  Merging files with long coding ...   ...                         79
10 Response and explanatory variables                                   82
10 1 Questions in statistical analysis ..  . . . . .  .. .   . .      82
10.2 Producing tables with tabmore . ..  .    .  .      .       .     83
10.3 A second explanatory variable..                        . .       85
10.4  O dds  . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . .. .  . . . .   86
10.5 Caseecontrol studies                                     . .86
10.6 Survival data and rates ...   .......                    ..      89
10.7  Count data and  rates  . ........  .........                    90
11 Measuring effects                                                    92
11.1 A metric response    ..            .                  ..     .   92
11.2  A  binary  response  .  ........  ......    ......              94
11.3  Case-control studies             ................               95
11.4  A  failure response  .  i...             . ....     .. .  .  .  95
11.5  Metric exposure variables    ..  .....      ....   .....    .   96
11.6 Metric versus grouped ....   .   . .   ..   ..                   98
12 Stratifying and controlling                                        100
12.1  Statilfication  .  ..  ... .  .........    .. ...     .. ...  100
12.2  Controlling        .....    .......              .  . .....   101
12.3 Controlling the effect of a metric exposure . .  . ..  .  . .  . 103
12.4 Metric control variables           .........               .   103
12.5  Metric versus grouped      ...........                .  .  .  104
13 Regression commands                                                105
13.1 Three important regression models .  ...                . ..   105
13.2 A metric exposure ..............                           .   106
13.3 A categorical exposure with two levels ......            . .   108
13.4 Categorical exposures with more than 2 levels              .   110
13.5 Fitted values and residuals  .  ........  .......              113
13.6  Case-control studies  ......             .............114
14 Tests of hypotheses                                                116
14.1  Mlodels and  Likelihood . .. . . ......   . . .  ...          116
14.2  Log  likelihood  .... . .........     ......    ..  ..        118
14.3 Likelihood ratio and Wald tests in Stata .  I . .  .           119
14.4 Joint tests of several parameters  . .  .  .  . .  ..     .    121
14.5 Other regression commands .  .. . . .  . . .  .        .       122
15 Controlling and stratifying with regression                        124
15.1 Controlling with regression commands       . . .          . . 124
15.2 Testing effects after controlling  .. . . . ...                12-
15.3 Stratifying with regression commands .  .  .    . . . .    . .126
15.4 Testing for effect modification and interactions .  . .  . . .  127
"15.5 interactions with metric variables  .  ..         ..     .    128
16 Mantel-Haenszel meth ods                                           130
16.1 The method          . ....                                   . 130
16.2 The Stata command     .   .         .    ...              .. 131
16.3 Matched case-control studies                        .    .   . 132
16.4 Mantel-Haeenszel methods for rates . .              . .        1. 33
16.5 Exposures on more than two levels                 .. . .134
17 Survival data and stset                                            136
17.1 The response in survival data  ....    .    .    ...... 136
17.2 Summarizing survial time .........               .... 137
17.3 Calculating rates and rate ratios . . .. 138
17.4 Variables created by stset . .......              . . . . .. 139
17.5 Rates that varyn witi tine  ... .....      ....              . 140
17.6 Cox regression  ..                 .........             . .   142
18 Different time scales and standardization                         144
18A Follow-up time                        ....... ...        ... 144
18.2 .The diet data       ..........             ..               145
18.3 Rates that change with time .   .                            146
18.4 Using non-st commands with st data                        .  147
18.5 FTwo time-scales. .....  . .                      .    .   . 148
18.6 Standardization . .          .                               149
19 Writing Stata programs                                            153
19.1  Starting with a do file  ... . .. . .        .  .   ..      153
19.2 Making the do file into an ado file                       . . 153
19.3 Cutting out unwanted output .                    .           155
19.4 Making the program accept arguments . . .              . . .  155
19.5 Allowing if, in, and options  I        , .                   156
19.6 Discarding previous versions of a program                    157
19.7 Another example .. ...                                       158
19.8 Some additional programming points                  .      . 161
20 How Stata is organized                                            163
20.1 Paths and programs. . . ..               .                   163
20.2 Updating Stata . . .         .                               1 .  .65
20.3 The Stata Journal .         .             . .          .     165
20.4 User-contributed programs .                 .           . . 166
205 The Statalist     ..         .                                167
20.6 Other sources of help .        .. .                          t. 167



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Stata, Biometry, Software