Table of contents for Mesopotamia, 1917-1920; a clash of loyalties; a personal and historical record, by Lt.-Col. Sir Arnold T. Wilson.


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CHAPTER I. MILITARY OPERATIONS IN MESOPOTAMIA FROM THE
DEATH OF GENERAL MAUDE TO THE ARMISTICE                .         page i
General Marshall succeeds General Maude. Military Policy. Question of Arab
co-operation. Occupation of Middle Euphrates. Occupation of Kirkuk. Sir
Percy Cox leaves for England. Question of advance on Mosul. Operations on
the Tigris. The Armistice. Occupation of Mosul wilayat.
CHAPTER I. THE ADVANCE TO THE CASPIAN                          page 24
Events in Russia, General Dunsterville's Mission. Occupation of Enzeli. Eastern
Committee of War Cabinet. Embarrassments in Mesopotamia consequent on
military commitments in Persia. Famine in N.W. Persia. Persian misapprehen-
sions and resentment. Railway survey from Khanaqin to Hamadan. Christian
refugees. Military virtues of Assyrian mountaineers. Attempted repatriation.
Developments in Persia. Mr. Edwin Montagu and Lord Curzon.
CHAPTER III. THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL RESOURCES. THE
GROWTH OF THE POLICE FORCE AND ARAB LEVIES                      page 45
Organization of man-power. Jail Corps. Labour Corps. Use of oil fuel and
coal. Construction of gunboats. Compulsory service at Abadan and on oil-fields.
Gallantry of Robert Lindsay and James Still at Tembi. Failure to substitute oil
for coal on rivers and railways. Proposed oil refinery at Baghdad. Agricultural
Development Scheme. Sir John Hewett. Cattle-breeding. Sheep and Wool.
Dairies. Chicken-Farms. Department of Local Resources. Brig.-Gen. Dickson.
Military Works Dept. Police Force. Lt.-Col. Prescott. Shabana and Levies.
Bt.-Maj. Boyle. Loyalty of Levies and Police.
CHAPTER IV. THE GROWTH OF THE CIVIL ADMINISTRATION DUR-
ING 1918     .          .   .     .              .      .       page 72
Trouble at Najaf. Captain Marshall murdered. Najaf blockaded. Conspirators
hanged. Complicity of German officers. Captain Balfour presented with sword
of honour. Civil Administration introduced. Land Tenure Systems. Position at
Samawa and Ramadi. The Blockade. The Shammar Jarba'. Position on Diyala
River and at Khanaqin. E. B. Soane. Abandonment and reoccupation of Kirkuk.
Baghdad. Red Cross ftes. Municipal activities. The Oudh Bequest. Progress
in Basra wilayat. Public Health. The Irrigation Dept. Qurna, Muntafiq, and
'Amara Divisions. Deportation of Civilians. Justice and Education. Political
uncertainties
CHAPTER V. POLITICAL DISCUSSIONS NOV. 918 TO MVAY r99 page ioi
General Marshall's announcement. Anglo-French Declaration of 8th November
1918. Proposed terms of peace. Proposals for an Arab Empire. Future govern-
ance of Iraq. The Arab Bureau. Self-determination in 'Iraq. Commendation
of His Majesty's Government. Peace Conference at Paris. Discussion in London.
Alternative and provisional schemes considered and approved.
CHAPTER VI. UNCERTAINTY IN           'IRAQ  AND   DISTURBANCES IN
KURDISTAN DEC. 1918 TO AUG. 919                 .    .    .    page z22
Situation in April 1919. Inability of H.M's Government to make any statement
of policy as regards Mosul. Proposals for constitutional organization. The
question of Mosul San Remo agreement. Captain Noel. Shaikh Mahmud.
Sharif Pasha. Saiyid Taha. Rowandiz. E. B. Soane. Shaikh Mahmud revolts;
is defeated, sentenced to death, and reprieved. Position in the Middle East. Ques-
tion of railway construction. Question of S. Kurdistan. Murders of Captain
Pearson, Willey, and Macdonald. Punitive operations in Kurdistan. Fresh dis-
turbances. Murder of Bill and Scott. Further punitive operations. A period of
quiescence.
CHAPTER VII. CIVIL ADMINISTRATION DURING 1919              .   page 156
"Administrative difficulties. Temporary contracts. Government of India demands
return of its officers. Delays in transit. Divided control in Whitehall. Parlia-
mentary references to Mesopotamia. Departmental reductions. Irrigation
Department. Sir John Hewett's Mission and Reports. Organization of Civil
Administration. Judicial and Educational Organizations.
CHAPTER VIII. ARMY CHAPLAINS, Y.M.C.A., CHURCH ARMY, CAN-
TEENS, AND WAR GRAVES COMMISSION               .     .    .    page 186
The supply of Chaplains. Episcopal Visitations. Ecclesiastical Reorganization.
General Maude's attitude towards religious observance. His last hours. Christian
refugees. The Church Army. Christian principles and the Civil Administration.
The Y.M.C.A. The Order of St. John of Jerusalem. The British Red Cross.
"The Joint War Committees. Expeditionary Force Canteens. The Imperial War
Graves Commission. The Basra War Memorial. The Maude Memorial
CHAPTER IX. ADMINISTRATIVE PROBLEMS 1919-20                    page 208
The Treaty of Versailles. The Covenant of the League of Nations. The Man-
date. Municipal and Divisional Councils. Popular feeling in Iraq. Peace tarries.
Monsignor Martin. French Government officials. Sir John Cowans. Question
of pre-war rights and concessions. Disposal of war stores. Disposal of river craft.
Lord Inchcape. Transfer of I.W.T. and Railways to Civil Administration.
Civil Budget of 1920. Civil Expenditure of i92o.
CHAPTER X. THE FIRST FOUR MONTHS OF r92o                  .    page 227
Political atmospherics. The Syrian r6gime. Frontier between Syria and 'Iraq.
"Ana. Dair-ez-Zor seized by filibusters. Ramadhan-al-Shallash. The War
Office bungle matters. We decline to reoccupy Dair-ez-Zor. Maulud Pasha.
Faisal proclaimed King of Syria. 'Abdulla proclaimed Amir of 'Iraq. References
to 'Iraq in Parliament. Proposal to maintain order in 'Iraq through Royal Air
Force. Mr. Winston Churchill's proposals. Mr. Asquith's views. Fresh con-
stitutional proposals. Sir Edgar Bonham-Carter's committee.
CHAPTER XI. THE ACCEPTANCE OF THE MANDATE-AND AFTER
pagr 248
Acceptance of Mandate at San Remo announced in 'Iraq   Constitutional pro-
posals. Reception of Mandate by nationalists. Popular attitude. Disturbances
during Ramadhan. The challenge of the nationalists. Their demands answered.
Views of Basra and Hilla notables. Views of tribal leaders. Kurdish opinion.
Return of Sir Percy Cox announced. Constitutional proposals accepted. Com-
mendation of H.M's Government. Sir Percy Cox passes through Baghdad.
Discussions in Parliament. Saiyid Talib Pasha al Naqib. Disorders on Diyala.
Views of Sir Percy Cox.
CHAPTER XII. THE MILITARY SITUATION IN 1920                 .    page 270
Sir Ayimer Haldane replaces Sir George MacMunn. Military difficulties. Stores.
Women and children. Prisoners of War. Refugees. Position in Persia, Tal
Afar attacked. Political officers killed. General Haldane leaves for Persia.
Karbala. Diwaniya. Hilla. Kufa. Shatra. Qalat Sikar. Arbil. Sulaimani,
Falluja. Kufa. Political Officers killed. Col. Leachman murdered. Samawa,
H.M.S. Greenfy's crew killed. Officers of Royal Air Force killed. Karbala,
Hilla. The Manchester Regiment. The rebellion quelled. Punitive measures,
CHAPTER XIII. POLITICAL DISCUSSIONS JUNE-OCT. 19zo page 303
Jafar Pasha. Foreign Office refuse to permit him to return to 'Iraq. Events in
"Syria. Proposal to offer Emir Faisal throne of 'Iraq. French action in Syria.
Question of sovereignty. What is a rebel? Staff difficulties. Sir Stanley Reed.
Causes of rising. Criticism at home. Objections to mandatory system. Vale-
dictory messages. Sir Percy Cox returns,



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: World War, 1914-1918 Campaigns Iraq, Iraq Politics and government, Great Britain Foreign relations Iraq, Iraq Foreign relations Great Britain