Table of contents for Radar cross section / Eugene F. Knott, John F. Shaeffer, Michael T. Tuley.


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Chapter 1 Introduction                                             1
11    Overview                                                   I
1.2   Radar Systems                                              3
.3    Electromrnagnetics                                         5
1.4   RCS Phenomenology                                          7
1,5  Absorbing Materials                                         9
1A6   Measurements                                              11
1.7   Basic Definitions                                         13
1.8   Sumrnmary                                                 20
References                                                        21
Chapter 2 Radar Fundamentals                                      23
21    Introduction                                              23
2.2   History of Radar Development                              23
2.3   Radar Frequency Bands                                     25
2.4   Radar System Fundamentals                                 27
2.4. 1  Basic Radar System Elements                       28
2.4.2  Continuous Wave Radars                             31
2.4 3  Pulsed Radar                                       32
214A4  Range Discrimination                               34
2.4.5  Angle Discrimination                               37
2.4.6  Doppler Discrimination                             39
2.4 7  An Instrumentation Radar Example                   42
2,5   The Radar Range Equation                                  44
2.5.1  Derivation of the Radar Range Equation             44
2,5.2  The Decibel Scale                                  46
126   Radar Detection                                             47
2.6.1  The Decision Process                                 47
26.,2  Noise Statistics                                     48
2.63   Single-Pulse Probability of Detection for a Nonfluctuating
Target                                               49
2.6.4  Pulse Integration                                    52
2.6,5  Detection of Fluctuating Targets                     52
217   Radar System Performance Examples                           54
2.7.1  L Band Surveillance Radar                            54
2. 72  Airborne Interceptor Radar                           56
217.3  Active Missile Seeker Radar                          57
2.7.4  Performance Summary                                  58
2.8   Electronic Countermeasures                                  59
2.9   Summary                                                     61
References                                                          61
Chapter 3 Physics and Overview of Electromagnetic Scattering        63
3.1   Introduction                                                63
3,2   Radar Cross Section Definition                              64
32,.1  IEEE RCS Definition                                  64
3.2.2  Intuitive Derivation for Scattering Cross Section    64
3.2.3  Other Cross-Section Concepts                         68
3.2,4  Polarization Scattering Matrix                       71
3.3   Fundamental Scattering Mechanisms                           74
3.3.1  Electromagnetic Wave Fundamentals                    74
3.3.2  The Scattering Process                               78
3 4   Scattering Regimes                                          82
34.1   Low-Frequency Scattering                             84
3.4.2  Resonant Region Scattering                           88
3.4,3  High-Frequency Optics Region                         89
3.5   Electromagnetic Theory                                      90
3.5.1  Source Quantities for Fields and Maxwell's Equations  90
3.5.2  Electromagnetic Scalar and Vector Potentials         96
3.5.3  Wave Equation                                        97
3,5.4  Waves at Boundaries                                 101
3,5.5  Reflection Coefficients                             102
3.5.6  Wave Reflection from Surface Current Point of View  109
3.5.7  Stratton-Chu Equations for the Scattered Field      110
3.6   Summary                                                    112
References                                                         113
Select Bibliography                                                113
Chapter 4 Exact Prediction Techniques                              115
4 1   Introduction                                               115
4 2   Classical Modal Solutions                                  116
4.3   Integral Equation Solutions                                121
4.3.1  EM Integral Equations                               124
4.132  Boundary Conditions                                 128
4.3.3  Solution Procedures                                 129
4.3.4  Scattered Fields                                    132
4.3.5  Example Solutions                                   134
4  Phenomenology: Surface Currents, Near Fields, and Imaging  140
4.4    Time-Varying Vectors                                140
4.4.2  Currents                                            143
4.4.3  Near Fields                                         144
4A4.4  Bistatic Image Analysis Using k Space Formulation   153
4 5   Differential Equation Solutions                            160
4_6   Comparisons with High-Frequency Solutions                  174
4.7   Summary                                                    178
References                                                         181
Chapter 5 High-Frequency RCS Prediction Techniques                 183
5.1   Overview                                                   183
5,2   Geometric Optics                                           185
5.3   Physical Optics                                            189
5.4   Geometrical Theory of Diffraction                         200
5.5   A Uniform Asymptotic Theory                                203
5.6   The Method of Equivalent Currents                          206
5.7   The Physical Theory of Diffraction                         209
5.8   The Incremental Length Diffraction Coefficient             214
5,9   The Surface Traveling Wave                                 216
5     s10  Summary                                               221
References                                                         223
Chapter 6 Phenomenological Examples of Radar Cross Section         225
6.1   Introduction                                               225
6.2   Specular Scattering                                        230
6.3   Surface Waves                                              242
64    Diffraction                                                250
6.5   Complex Shapes                                             256
6.6   Natural Targets                                            260
6. 7  Summary                                                    264
References                                                         267
Chapter 7 Radar Cross Section Reduction                            269
7,    Background                                                 269
7 2   The Four Basic Methods of RCSR                             270
7.2.1  Shaping                                             271
7 2 2  Radar Absorbing Materials                           271
7,2.3  Passive Cancellation                                272
7.2.4  Active Cancellation                                 273
7.2,5  The Penalties of RCSR                               273
7.3   The RCSR Numbers Game                                      274
7A4   Shaping                                                    277
7.4.1  Shaping Roadmap and Threat Sectors                  279
7.4. 2  Shaping Goals                                      279
7.4.3  Other Issues                                        287
7.4,4  Some Shaping Examples                               289
744.5  Shaping Rule Summary                                29'
7.5   Summary                                                    294
Chapter 8 Radar Absorbing Materials                                297
8,1   Introduction                                               297
8.2   Electromagnetic Loss Mechanisms                            298
843   Specular Scattering from Dielectric Multilayers            300
8.3 1  Thin-Sheet Characterization Using Ohms per Square   301
8.3.2  Normal Incidence Scattering                         303
8.3.3  Oblique Incidence Scattering                        306
8.3.4  The Wave Matrix Approach to Scattering              308
8.3.5  An Approximate Scattering Analysis Procedure        310
8.4   Dielectric Multilayer Absorber Design and Performance      313
8.4.1  Salisbury Screens and Dallenbach Layers             314
8 .42  Multilayer Dielectric Absorbers                     320
8.5   Circuit Analog RAM and Frequency-Selective Surfaces        327
8.6   Magnetic RAM                                               334
8.7   Hybrid RAM and Radar Absorbing Structures                  339
N.8   Nonspecular RAM                                            343
8.8.1  Magnetic and Dielectric Coatings for Surface Wave
Control                                             344
8.8.2  Tapered Resistive Edge Treatments                   348
8.9   Summary                                                    356
References                                                         357
Chapter 9 Radar Absorber Measurement Techniques                    361
9.1   Overview                                                   361
9.2   Transmission Line Theory                                   364
9.2.1  Basic Relationships                                 364
9.2.2  TEM Lines and Waveguides                            366
9.2.3  Sample Holders                                      371
9.3   Transmission Line Measurements                             373
9.31   Open- and Short-Circuit Measurements                373
9,3.2  The Network Analyzer and the Scattering Matrix      378
9.3.3  Time-Domain Reflectometry                           384
9.4   Free-Space Methods                                         387
9.43i  The NRL Arch                                        388
9.4.2  The RCS Method                                      392
9.5   Other Methods                                            395
9.5.1  Large Waveguides                                  395
9.5.2  Interferometers                                   398
9.5.3  The Admittance Tunnel                             401
9.6   Summary                                                  405
References                                                       406
Chapter 10 Antenna RCS and RCSR                                  407
10.1 Introduction                                              407
10.2  Scattering Fundamentals                                  408
10.2.1 A Relationship Between Antenna Gain and Antenna
RCS                                               408
10.2.2 Fundamental Antenna Scattering Equations          410
10.2.3 Structural Mode and Antenna Mode Scattering       414
10.2.4 The Minimum Scattering Antenna                    416
10.3  Antenna Scattering Characteristics                       417
10.3.1 Horn Antennas                                     418
10.3.2 Reflector Antennas                                422
10o3.3 Spiral Antennas                                   426
10.3.4 Microstrip Antennas                               428
10.3.5 Array Antennas                                    432
10.4  Antenna RCSR                                             434
10.4.1 Frequency-Selective Surfaces                      434
10.4,2 Antenna Mode RCSR                                 437
10.4,3 Structural Mode RCSR                              443
10.5  Summary                                                  445
References                                                       446
Chapter 11 RCS Measurement Requirements                          449
11.1  Measurement Objectives                                   449
1 12  Types of RCS Measurements                                451
11.3  The Farfield Requirement                                 458
11l4  Great Circle versus Conical Cuts                         462
S1.5  Target Support Structures                                465
11.6  Target-Ground Interactions                               473
11.7  Calibration                                              479
11.8  Summary                                                  482
References                                                       483
Chapter 12 Outdoor RCS Test Ranges                               485
12.1 Overview                                                  485
12.2 Instrumentation                                           486
12.3  The Ground-Plane Effect                                  493
12.4  Effect of the Antenna Pattern                            499
12.5  Ground Reflection Coefficient                            504
12.6  Passive Clutter and Multipath Reduction                    508
12.7  Defeating the Ground Plane                                510
12.8  Examples of Past and Existing Ranges                      512
12.9  Summary                                                    521
References                                                         522
Chapter 13 Indoor RCS Ranges                                       523
131   Introduction                                              523
13.2  Chamber Design                                            524
13.2.1 Chamber Geometry                                    525
13.2 2 RAM for Anechoic Chamber Applications               528
13.3  Compact Ranges                                             532
13.3 1 Theory of Operation                                 533
13.3.2 Reflector Options                                   535
13.3.3 Operating Limitations                               538
1.34  Instrumentation                                            539
13 5  Range Operation                                            542
13.6  Summary                                                    544
References                                                         544
Chapter 14 Hip-Pocket RCS Estimation, Data Presentation, and
Reduction                                           547
14.1  Introduction                                               547
14,2  High-Frequency Scattering by a Complex Target              547
14.3  Phasor Addition                                            558
14.4  Hip-Pocket Radar Cross Section Estimation                  560
14.4.1 Cylinder Ogive Geometry RCS Estimation              561
14.4.2 Hypothetical Target Estimation                      565
14.5  Data Reduction                                             569
14o5.1 RCS Data Requirements                               570
14 6  RCS Data Presentation Formats                              5 73
14 6.1 RCS Values                                          574
14.6.2 Polar and Rectangular Plots                         575
14.6.3 Regional or Global RCS Displays                     575
1427  RCS Data Statistical Averaging                            584
14.7.1 Median, Linear, and Geometric Averages              585
14.7.2 Cumulative Averages                                 589
1447.3 Standard Deviations, Probability Density Functions, and
Cumulative Distribution Functions                   589
14.8  Artificial Data Example                                   592
14.9  Data Reduction Recipes                                     595



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Radar, Radar cross sections