Table of contents for Design for emergence : collaborative social play with online and location-based media / Yanna Vogiazou.


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Counter
Guide:
SStoryboard, idea generation           Theoretical foundation, principles
-= Background, literature review     - indings
= Conclusions, reflection              Methods, processes
Design, prototype description         = Observational studies
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FOREWORD                                                                vii
1. INTRODUCTION
I I Researching Spontaneous Collaborative Play                        I
1.2 Thesis Structure                                                  2
PART I. FOUNDATIONS: SOCIAL PLAY AS A DESIGN FRAMEWORK
FOR EMERGENCE
2. EXPLORING PRESENCE AND SOCIAL PLAY                                    7
211 Defining Presence Based Group Play                                7
2.1.1 What is Presence?                                           8
2.1.2 Why Play?                                                  14
2 1.3 Crowd Behaviour and Group Dynamics                         17
2.1 .4 Emergent SelfOrganisation                                 21
2.2 The Challenge of Mixed Reality Collective Experiences            23
22.11  Participant Observation in Flash Mobs                     24
2.2.2 Wireless Location-Based Multiplayer Games                  27
2.2.3 Location-Based Social Software                             30
2.24 A Categorization of Ubiquitous Social Experiences           33
22 5 Research Framework                                          38
DESI R   FOR EMERGENCE                                            41
3.1 A Model for Design for Emergence                               41
3  Desin Principles                                               45
3 2.1 Presence is Symbolic                                     45
3 122 Large Scale Is Important for Emergent Interaction        47
123 Keep the Design Lightweight                                48
312.4 By Employing Affordances Users Understand and Can Extend
the Design                                               49
4. EARLY D     IESIGN SKETCHES FOR DESIGN FOR EMERGENCE               51
4.1 Online Games                                                   52
4.2 Pixeltag: A Mobile Game                                        55
4.3  Mixed Reality Games                                           59
4.4 Final Thoughts Towards a Playground Social Game                65
PART tL ONI NE CASE STUDY: EXPERIMENTS WITH A
MUILT PLAYER BUMPER CAR GAME
5. PLAYGROUND INTERACTION ONLINE: THE BUMPER CAR GAME                 69
5    he Idea                                                   ..69
5.2 Storyboards and Variations                                     70
5   TecPnical Limitations and Design Considerations                72
5.A BuperCar Design and Experiments                               73
5:A1 The Game Design                                           73
5.42 Experimental Design                                       76
5.4.3 Analysis Method                                          80
5 Findings                                                         82
5.5 1 Emergence                                                82
5.5.2 Spontaneous Collaboration and Group Behaviours           85
.5.53 Game Experience                                          88
5 5 4 Visual Communication and Design                          92
5.6 Conclusions                                                    97
PART IlL DESIGN FOR EMERGENCE IN THE REAL WORLD:
EXPERIMENTING WIITH A MIXED REALITY URBAN PLAYGROUND
6  c'rTIAG: URBAN SPACE AS A LARGE GROUP PLAYGROUND                    103
6.1 The Idea 1                                                      103
6 2 Storyboards and Scenarios                                       105
6.2.1 The Action of Tagging                                    105
6.2.2 Group Formations and Swarming                            107
6.2.3 Views                                                    108
6.124 Metaphor                                                 110
6.3 The CitiTag Game                                                112
6.3,1 Limitations and Design Considerations                    1 12
6.3.2 CitiTag Design                                           112
6.3.3 CitiTag System Architecture                              115
6.4 Method: User Srudies                                            116
6.5 Findings +                                                      117
6.5.1 Game Experience                                          117
6.5.2 Emergence                                                123
6.5.3 Awareness, Group Belongingness and Collaboration         133
6.5,4 Usability and Design                                     136
6.6 Conclusions and Future Work  "                                  138
PART IV. REFLECTIONS ON HOW TO DESIGN FOR EMERGENCE
7. DESIGNING FOR SPONTANEOUS COLLABORATIVE PLAY BASED
ON PRESENCE                                                         143
7.1 Revisiting the Research Framework G                             143
7.1.1 Emergence in BumperCars and CitiTag                      144
7.1.2 Emergence as Experientiai Variability                    147
7.1.3 Emergence Feeding Back into the Design Process           150
7,2 Guidelines for Design for Emergence for Online and Ubiquitous
Multi-User Applications                                        1 52
7.3 Ftiture Work with Spontaneous Presence-Based Play             156
73.  tI Key Research Questions and Opportunities               156
7.3.2 UrbanSwarm: A Proposed Example for Further Research      158
7.4 Conclusion: So What?                                           164



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Emergence (Philosophy)Technology Social aspects, Human-computer interaction, Ambient intelligence