Table of contents for Human impacts on weather and climate / William R. Cotton, Roger A. Pielke.


Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog
Note: Electronic data is machine generated. May be incomplete or contain other coding.


Counter
Part I The rise and fall of the science of weather modification
by cloud seeding                                                   1
1 The rise of the science of weather modification by cloud seeding  3
1.1 Project Cirrus                                             5
2 The glory years of weather modification                         9
2. 1 Introduction                                              9
2.2 The static mode of cloud seeding                           9
23 The dynamic mode of cloud seeding                          20
23.1 Introduction                                         20
2.3.2 Fundamental concepts                                20
2.4 Modification of warm clouds                                32
2.4.1 Introduction                                        32
2.4.2 Basic physical concepts of precipitation formation in warm
clouds                                              33
2.43  Strategies for enhancing rainfall from warm clouds  36
25 Hail suppression                                           40
.5.1 Introducton                                          40
2.5.2  Basic concepts of hailstorms and hail formation    41
2.5.3  Hail suppression concepts                          56
2.5.4  Field confirmation of hail suppression techniques  61
2.6  Modification of tropical cyclones                         63
2.6.1 Basic conceptual model of hurricanes                63
2.6.2 The STORMFURY modification hypothesis               65
2.6.3  STORMFURY fie d experiments                        65
3 The fall of the science of weather modification by cloud seeding  67
Part Il Inadvertent human impacts on regional weather and    imate  73
4  Anthropogenic emissions of aerosols and gases                   75
4.1 Cloud condensation nuclei and precipitation                  75
4 2  Aircraft contrails                                         82
"43  Ice nuclei and precipitation                               85
4. Other pollution effects                                      86
4.5  Dust                                                        87
4.5.1 Direct radiative forcing                              87
4,52  Indirect effects of dust                              88
"5  Urban-induced changes in precipitation and weather              90
5. 1 Introduction                                               90
5.2  Urban increases in CCN and IN concentrations and spectra
5.3  The glaciation mechanism                                   92
5.4 Impact of urban land use on precipitation and weather       93
5.4.1 Observed cloud mophology and frequency                97
14.2 ,Clouds and precipitation deduced from radar studies   97
6  Other land-use/land-cover changes                               102
6.   Landscape effects                                          102
6. .l  Surface effects                                     102
6.1.2  Boundary-layer effects                              108
6.1.3  Local wind circulations                             1II1
6.1.4  Vertical perspective                                112
6.1.5  Mesoscale and regional horizontal perspective       I12
6.2  I nfluence of irrigation                                   118
6.2.1  Colorado                                            1 18
6.12. Nebraska                                             121
6.3  Dryland agriculture: Oklahoma                              131
6.4  Desertification                                            131
6.4 1 Historical overview                                  131
6.4.2  North Africa                                        132
6A    Western Australia                                    132
6.4.4  Middle East                                         133
6.5  Dcforestation                                              1.35
6... '  Histori cal perspective                             3 5
6.5.2  Amazon                                              135
6.5.3  Africa                                              1 37
6.6  Regional vegetation feedbacks                              138
6.7  Conclusion                                                 144
7 Conclcding remarks regarding deliherate and inadvertent human
impacts on regional weather and climate                       148
Part IH  Human impacts on global c imate                          151
8  Overview of global climate forcings and feedbacks              153
8.   Overview                                                 153
8.2  Atmospheric radiation                                    155
8.2.1 Absorption and scaiering by gases                 156
8.22 Absorption and scattering by aerosols              158
.2.3  Absorption and scattering by clouds               159
8.14  Global energy bala-ce and the greenhouse effect   160
8.2.5 Changes in solar luminosity and orbital parameters  161
8.2.6  Natural variations in aerosos and dust           165
8.2.7  Surface properties                               165
8.2.8 Assessment of the relative radiative effect of carbon
dioxide and water vapor                           166
8.3  Climate feedbacks                                        174
8.3.1  Water vapor feedbac:ks                           174
8.3.2 Cloud feedbacks                                   176
83.3  Surface albedo feedbacks                          179
"8.3.4  Ocean feedbacks                                 180
8.4  Views of the Intergoerrnmental Panel on Climate Change and
the National Research Council of climate forcings        181
9  Cli r tic effects of anthropogenic aerosols                   187
9.   Introduction                                             187
9.2  Direct aerosol effects                                   188
9.3  Aerosol impacts on clouds: the Twomey effect             192
9.4  Aerosos in mixed-phase clouds and climate                198
9,5  Aerosols, deep convection, and climate                   201
10  Nuclear winter                                                203
S0.1 introduction                                             203
10,2  The nuclear winter hypthesis: its scientific basis      205
i0.2 1 The war scenarios                                 205
0.2.2  Smoke production                                 206
10.23 Vertical distribution of smoke                    7107
102.4  Scavenging and sedimentation of smoke            208
10.2.5  Water in ection and mesoscale responses          2 10
10.2.6 Other mesoscale responses                         21
10.2.7 Global climatic responses                       213
10.2.8 Biological effects                             216
10.3  Summary of the status of the nuclear winter hypothesis  218
i   Global effects of land-use/land-cover change and vegetation dynamics 220
Ii .I Land-use/land-cover changes                           220
i.2  Historical land-use change                             221
113  Global perspective                                     224
11.4  Quantifying land-use/land-cover forcing of climate    232
11,5  Atmosphere-vegetation interactions                    237
1    I6  T he abrupt desertification of the Sahara         240
EpiI oe                                                        243
E.    The importance and underappreciation of natural variability  243
E2     he dangers of oversellin                             244
E.3   The capricious administration of science and technology  247
E4    Scientific credibility and advocacy                   248
E,5   Should society wait for hard scientific evidence?     250
E.6   Politics and science                                  251
E.7   Conclusions                                           252



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Climatology Social aspects, Weather Social aspects, Nature Effect of human beings on, Climatic changes Environmental aspects