Table of contents for Electric drives and electromechanical systems / Richard Crowder.


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1   Electromechanical systems                                           1
.1   Principles of automation  ...                                   1
1.2  Machine tools....        ... .  .            ....               4
1.2.1  Conventional machining processes .   .      .           4
1.2.2  Non-conventional machining . . . ...                     7
1.2.3  Machining centres ........                        . .   10
1.3  Robots .....     ...............                   ..    .
1.3.1  Industrial robots  . .  .  ..    ..11
1.3.2  Robotic hands  .........           .                    18
1.3.3  Mobile robotics             . . ...... . .         .   23
1.3.   Legged robots .....    ... O  .                        24
1.4  Other applications........                       .....         27
1.4.1  Automotive applications  ...           .       .  .    27
1.4.2  Aerospace applications . . .  . ,.    . . . . . . . .  28
.5   Motion-control systems . . . .  .31
1.6  Summary    .....                   ......                      34
2  Analysing a drive system                                            35
2.1   Rotary systems ....       ..........                          35
2 1.1  Fundamental relationships ..       .                    35
2.1.2  Torque considerations              ......               37
2. 13  Gear ratios . ..    .                  . .   . ...      39
2, .4  Acceleration without an external load   .               40
2.1.5  Acceleration with an applied external load .  .  . . .  41
21.6   Accelerating loads with variable inertias . . . .  . ..  42
2.2  Linear systems    ...   ...   ..............          .    .   43
2.3  Friction  ..... . .                                     .      44
2.4  Motion profiles  ..     ............                           46
2.5  Asessment of a motor-drive system  . .    .                    52
2..  I Mechanical compatibility ...... . ..                   52
15 2  Electromagnetic compatibility .  . . . . . .      .    53
393    Wiring considerations ... ...               ..     .  55
2.54  Supply considerations .  .   ,.                   .    57
2..5,  Protection from the environment ... .  . .   .  .  .   61
25.6   Drive hazards andrisk .        .........       ...     62
16  Summary                                    ..           ..    70
3  Power transmission and sizing                                      71
3.   Gearboxes  I  .                        ...         ....      72
3.1    Planetary gearbox. .  .......                . . .  .  72
1.2    Harmonic gearbox    .....          .....               75
34,.3  Cycloid gearbox            .....                       77
3.2  Lead and ball screws    ......                .        .  .   78
13   Beh drives... .i                                  ..          81
34,  Bearings                . . .. ..   .....                     85
3.4,1  Conventional bearings .  . . .   ... ..         .      85
3,4.2  Air bearings.     .     . ..                   .. .    88
3,43   Magnetic bearings      .         ...                   89
3.5  Couplings ......         ..                                   90
3.6  Shafts  ..               ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  .  92
3.6.1  Static behaviour of shafts .  . ...........            92
3.6o2  Transient behaviour of shafts  . . . . .   . .  . . .  93
7    Lineardrives   .,...........                                  95
8  Re ew of motor-drive sizing     .................             96
3.8    Continuous duty  .         . ..............            98
3,8.2  Intermittent duty      ..     ..      .........        99
3.8.3  Inability to meet both the speed and the torque requirements 102
3.8,4  Linear motor sizing  ...... .      .....        .     103
3.9  Sumrmary     ,            .   .  .                    .     105
4  Vel:city and position transducers                                 107
4.1  The performance of measurement systems     . ..   ..     .   107
41,1   Random errors .......            . ..             ..  108
4.11   Systematic errors    ...                          .   I11
4.1.3  Digital-systemerrors ......        ......             112
4.2  Rotating velocity transducers        . .      .      .  .  . 115
42. 1  Brushed d.c. tachogenerators .     .      . .  . .     16
4,2 /  Brushless d.c. tachogenerators .      ...             117
4,2.1. Incremental systems       ....      .        I.    . 117
4.24  liectromechanical pulse encoders  ..                    18
4.   Position transducers .,,... .                 ,        . . .  118
4.3.1  Brushed potentiometers    . . . .       .            119
43.2   Linear variable differential transformers - LVDT  .   119
4.13   Resolvers  ....     .....   ...     ..   ..          120
4. 3. 4  Rotary and inear Inductosyn  ..                   125
4.3.5  Optical position sensors ..    ...                   1 27
4.4   Application of position and velocity transducers ....  ..   131
4.4.1  Mechanical installation ..  .   .   .      . . .     131
.4.2   Electrical interconnection .  .. .. .      . .. . . 133
44 .3  Determination of datum position ..                    35
4.5  Summinarvy  .    .     ...    . ... .    . . .   ..         135
5  Brushed direct-current motors                                    137
5.1  Review of motor theory                         . . . . . ... 137
52   Direct-current motors ......          ......                139
5.2.   Ironless-rotor motors                .  . . .  . .   139
5.2.2  Iron-rotormotors.......                           . 141
5.2.3  Torque motors .......                                141
2.4    Printed-circuit motors ..              . . .. .  . . 143
5 3  Drives for d.c. brushed motors . .        . .                44
5. i.  Four-quadrant thyristor converters . . . .....       145
5 3.2  Linear amplifiers ..............                     145
5.3.3  Pulse width modulated servo drives  .  .  . .   .    148
5-.4   Analysis of the bipolar PWM amplifier . .            1 .  51
513.5  PWM amplifiers ........ ...                         155
5.4  Regeneration  ..............         ..                     162
5,5  Summary                                 ..    ........ 168
6  Brushless motors and controllers                                 169
6.1  The d.c. brushless motor                                    172
6.1.1  Torque-speed characteristics . ....        .. ..     176
6.1.2  Brushless d.c. motor controllers . .  . .  .     .    178
6,2  Sinewave-wound brushless motors ..     ..   .   ... .       1. 182
6.2.1  Torque characteristics . ..                . ..      183
6,2.2  Voltage characteristics . . ..  .   . ..  . .   . . .85
6.2.3  Torque-speed characteristics     ....      ..      . 185
6.2.4  Control of sinewave-wound brushless motors  . ..  . . 187
6..3  Linear motors .  ....     . ... . .  .  .. ..   ,...  .    188
6.4  Summary ....                .189
7  Induction motors                                                 191
7  I nduction motor characteristics  .                  . ..     192
7.2  Scalar control  . .. . . . .    .          .       .  .     198
S5   Vector control  . .... ......  ..              .      .   202
7.31   Vector control principles           .       . . . .  203
7 3.   Implementation of vector control .  . . . .    . . .  20
73.3   Vector control using sensors . . .  .. .. ..  . .  . 208
7.3    Sensorless vector control .  . .      . . ...  .     21
"74  Matrix converter ....                                       211
7.   Sunmmary  ....        .         .             . ..   ..     213
8  Stepper motors                                                   215
8.1  Principles of stepper-motor operation  .. .                 216
8. 1.  Multistack variable-reluctance motors . . . .216
8.1.2  Single-stack variable-reluctance motors . . .....    218
8g13   Hybrid stepper mtors ...........                     218
8 13   Hybrid stepper motors .  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . 218
8.1 A  Linear stepper motor ....              .             221
8.1.5  Comparison of motor types .2 .  . . .......           22
8&2  Static-position accuracy ..............         . .         223
831  lorque-speed characteristics .                     .        225
8.4 tCotrol of stepper motors  ..  ... . ..                      226
8A .11  Open-loop control ...............                   228
84.2   Translators and drive circuits . . . . .  . .  . .   229
85  Summary    .  ....    .. .  .....     ....      .....     .  233
Related   motors  and  actuators                                235
9.   Voice coils   .     ..  .  ....             ...      .      235
9.2  Limied-angle torque motors . . .         ..                 237
93   Piezoelectric motors .......       .                        239
94  Switched reluctance motors  . .    . . . .        .   .     240
9.5  Shape-memory alloy  ...    .                                245
9.6  Summary   .   . ....        ......                          246
10 Controllers for automation                                       247
"0i 1 Servo control  .                           .........       248
10,11  Digital controllers  ....   .     .    .             253
10.1.2 Advanced control systems  . . . . . . .   .          257
10.1.3 Digital signal processors.           . .. ...  . .   257
1 02 Motion controllers          ....                   .        259
10i  Programmable logic controllers .  .                .   .    262
0.3.1 Combinational-logic programrring .   .    .   . .     265
10.3.2 Sequential-logic programming .            . .        267
104 Networks .    . .. .       . .  ...... . . . ..... 272
10.4.1 Network architecture . ....     .     ..      . ... 274
0.4.2 Industrial networking . . . . . . .           . . .   276
10.4.3 SCADA     ..    . ...       .        ....            279
10.5 Summary   . ...         .                      . ...... 279



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Electric driving, Electric controllers, Power electronics, Commande électrique, Régulateurs électriques, Électronique de puissance