Table of contents for Fundamentals of nanoscale film analysis / Terry L. Alford, Leonard C. Feldman and James W. Mayer.


Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog
Note: Electronic data is machine generated. May be incomplete or contain other coding.


Counter
1. An Overview: Concepts, Units. and the Bohr Atom  ..........................  1
1 1.  introduction  .i  t.. . .           .......... ...... ... ....... ...
1.2  N om enclature ..  ..... .  .  . ..... . ........  .  .      2
3    Energies. Units  and  Particles .................. .. ... ..   6
1.4   Particle-Wave Duality and Lattice Spacing .......... ........  8
1.5  The  Bohr M odel .... ... ......... ... ..... . .... .......... ........  9
P rob lem s.  I............. ...... . ......  ......... ................ ... ... .. ... .............  10
2. Atomic Collisions and Backscattering Spectrometry ............ ......  12
2.1   Introduction  . .. .... ..  . ........... ..... .... .......... ........... ..... ........  12
2.2   Kinem atics of Elastic  Collisions ............................. ...... ......  13
2.3   Rutherford Back scatterin g Spectrometry .. ............ ....... .... ......  16
2.4   Scattering Cross Section and Impact Parameter ..................  17
2.5   Central Force Scattering  ....... ........... ...... ... ........  18
2.1   Scattering Cross Section: Two-Bod y.y ...... .... .... ................  21
2.7   Deviations from Rutherford Scattering at Low and High Energy.....  23
2.8   Low-Energy  Ion  Scattering ........ ........ . ................ .......... .  24
2.9   Forward  Recoil Spectrometry ....... ....................................   28
2.1)0  Center of Mass to Laboratory Transformation.. ....... ......... .......   28
P ro b lem s  ..........  .. .... ............................ ........................ ..   3 1
3. Energy Loss of Light Ions and Backscattering Depth Profiles, ...... .....  34
3 1   Introduction  ... ..   .......... ....... . ... .. ... .... ...   34
32    General Picture of Energy Loss and Units of Energy Loss............  34
3.3   Energy Los  of vMeV  Li ht Ions in Solids ................. ..... ......   35
3.4   Energy Loss in Compounds---Bragg's Rule .......... ..............  40
3.5   The Energy W idth in  Backscattel rng  ........ .... ........... .....  40
3.6   The Shape of the Backscattering Spectrum ...... ............ ...  43
3.7   Depth Profiles with Rutherford Scattering........ .... ..... ... ... ...  45
3.8   Depth Resolution and Energy-Loss Straggling .. ... .........  47
3.9   Hydrogen and Deuterium  Depth Profiles.... ............. ... ... .......   50
3.  0  Ranges  of H  and  He  ions .....  .... .. ................................... . ... ....  52
.1    Sputtering and  Limits to Sensitivity ....... .   . ................  54
.12   Summary  of Scattering  Relations ..... ..... ... ..................  55
P roblem s  .  ... . ....... .. ....... .............. ......... ... ....  ..... ................ ...  55
4. Sputter Depth Profiles and Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy . ...............  59
4.1  I  ntroduction  ..... ....... ........... . ........... ... ...... ..  . ... . .. .  59
4.2   Sputtering by Ion Bombardment- General Concepts ........ .......  60
4.3   N uclear  Energy  Loss  ...... ........ .. . ................. . ....... .. ....  63
4.4   Sputtering  Yield  ........   ....... ...... ............. ... ...... ..   67
4.5   Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS).....................  .69
4.6   Secondary Neutral Mass Spectroscopy (SNMS) .......................  73
4.7   Preferential Sputtering and Depth Profiles  ............ ..... .........  75
4.8   Interface Broadening  and  Ion  M ixing  ........................ ........  77
4     Thomas-Fermi Statistical Model of the Atom ........... ..........  80
P roblem s  ......  .... ....... ........ ........ .... ..... .. ... .. ...... ... .  8 1
5 . ion  C hannelin g ........  ........ ... ... .   . .  .. . .. ... ....................... ... .  84
5.i1  Introduction  ... ....... . .  ................... ...   ... .  .. ..... ........  84
5.2   Channeling  in  Single  Crystas  .. . .. . ...... ... ......... ...........  84
5.3   Lattice Location of Impurities in Crystals......... ..... . ...  88
5.4   Channeling Flux Distributions  ..... ........ ... ...... ....  89
5.5   Surface Interaction via a Two-Atom Model .................. ......  92
5,6   The  Surface  Peak.. ........ ............. ........... .........  95
5.7   Substrate Shadowing: Epitaxial Au on Ag( 11)..... ... ......... ......  97
5.8   Epitaxial G row th  . ..........  .........   .. ... .... ........ .. . ........... .  99
6 .1  introduction  ....... . ....... . .......... .... ...  ..  ... ... ......... ..........  10
6.2   Electron  Spectroscopies: Energy Ana ysis ...............................  105
6.3   Escape Depth  and  Detected  Volume .......................................  106
6.4   Inelastic Electron-Electron Colisions................   ..  109
6.5   Electron Impact lonization Cross Section ............. ...... ........  110
6.6   P asm ons  ... .  . ..., ...  .. ....... ..... . ..... .. ........ ......   1 11
6.7   The Electron Mean Free Path  ........ ..................  .......  113
6.8   Influence of Thin Film Morphology on Electron Attenuation... ....  114
6.9   Range of Electrons in Solids OJU .......                   118
6.10  E lectron Ener'gy L.oss Soectroscop  (EELS) ............... ... ........   120
6.11  Brerm sstrah  ung ..........  ... . ..  .  .   ... ...... ..  ............  124
P ro le m s... .. ... ...... .. .... ............................................  2 6
7.  X -ray  D iffraction.  .            ...................    ....... .  129
7.1    ntroduction  ....H .... .  ... ..... .  .... .......  . ........ ....... ...... .  129
7.2   Bragg's  Law  in  Real Space  ... . ........ ....... ..................  . ........  130
7.3    Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Measurements......................  133
7.4   Texture Measurements in Polycrystalline Thin Films................... 1 35
7.5   Strain  M easurements in Epitaxial Layers........ ....... ........... ......  137
7.6   C rystalline  Structure... . .......... .............................. ... .. .......   141
7.7   Allowed Reflections and Relative Intensities ......... ............ ...  143
P roblem s  ......................... ...... .. .  .......... .  .......  .......  ................   14 9
.  Electron  D iffraction  ..... ..... .. .... .. ...... ...... .. . ... ...... .... ..  ...... ...   52
8.,   Introduction  . .........   ........... ............... . ............ .. .........   152
8.2   Reciprocal  Space  .... ...  .......... .. ........ ...... ... . ....... ....... ...  153
8.3   L aue  E quations  .......  ................. ............................... .. ...  157
8.4   Bragg's Law    ... . .... ......  ........... .   ................  158
8.5   Ewald  Sphere Synthesis ...   .............         ...        159
8.6   The  Electron  M icroscope ........................  ..... . .... ...... ,  160
8.7   Indexing Diffraction Paterns............                        66
Problem s........... ... ... ...  ... .............. ......................... ......  172
9. Photon  Absorption  in  Solids and  EXAFS................................. .......  174
9.1   Introduction  .  ....... ..  .. ..   ....................... . ............. ......... .  174
9.2   The  Schr6dinger Equation........   ........... ..........     174
9.3   W ave  Functions  ..... ........... ......      .................   176
904   Quantum Numbers. Electron Configuration.
and  N otation.. ....... ........... 1..... .     ..... ........  79
9.5   Transition  Probability  ...... .............. ......................... ..........  180
9.6   Photoeectric Effect-Square-Well Approximation. ..................  181
9.7   Photoelectric Transition Probability for
a  H ydrogenic  A tom  ... ... .......  . ........ .......... .. ............... ..... .  184
9.8   X -ray  Absorption. ...... .......... ................         1 85
9.9   Extended X-ray Absomtion Fine Structre (EXAFS) ....).............  189
9.10  Time-Dependent Perturbation Theory.....................        192
0.  X -ray  Photoelectron  Spectrosco y  ............................... ................  199
10.1  Introduction  .............  .... .. ......  .... ....... . .   ... ................  199
10.2   xpermenta   Considerations ................................  . ......  199
0.3   Kinetic Energy of Photoelectrons.....   ......    ........  . 2)03
10.4  Photoelectron Energy  Spectrum  .............. . ....... ..... ... .  204
10.5  Bindirg Energy and Final-State Effects .......... ........ ...... . . .  206
10.6  Binding Energy Shifts--Chemical Shifts  ....................... .........  208
10.7  Q uantitative  A nalysis.... . ............... .. .... ... .......... .. .......   210
P ro b lem s  . ............ . ..... . .... ............... .... ........ .. .....................  21 1
11. Radiative Transitions and the Electron M icroprobe.................... .. ..... .  214
11.1  Introduction  .................                           214
1  .2  Nomenclature in X-Ray Spectroscopy .... .. .  .............. . ..  215
11.3  Dipole  Selection  Rules. .....         ........ ..........  215
11.4  Electron  M icroprobe.....  ..... ........ .. .. .. ..  .... ......  .. ..   216
11.5  Transition Rate for Spontaneous Emission ........... ...... . ..... .  220
11.6  Transition  Rate  for K,  Emission  in  Ni ....... .. .. .. ............. ..  220
1  .7  Electron Microprobe: Quantitative Analysis. .................. . .  222
1 1.8  Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) ............  ....... 226
11.9  Evaluation of the Transition Probability for Radiative Transitions... 227
1  . 10  Calculation  of the  KFJ  K,  Ratio........ ..... ......... . ....... .........   230
Problem s.. ..                                                    1
12. Nonradiative Transitions and Auger Electron Spectroscopy............  234
12  1  introduction ........  ........ ............             234
11 2  A ugner Transitions ..  .... ....... .. .  .. . ..........  .  ........ . .. ..  234
12.3  Yield of Auger Electrons and Fluorescence Yield .................  241
12.4  Atomic Level W idth and  Li fetmes  .......... ....................   243
12.5  Auger Electron  Spectroscopy ....... ....... ..... ........ .......... ..  244
12.6  Quantitative Anal ysis ...  . .. .  . .  .. ..  ..... .........   248
2.7  A uger Depth  Profiles..................... .. ...  ... ........   249
Problen s  ... ... ... . .... .... ............ ................... .....  252
13. Nuclear Techniques: Activation Analysis and Prompt Radiation Analysis.. 255
13.  I ntroduction  .  .......... .. ... ....... .......  ....... .... ..................   255
132   Q  Values and  Kinetic Energies .................  .. . ..  59
13.3  Radioactive  Decay  .. __.... .   ...... .. ..... ..... ....... .  262
13.4  Radioactive  D ecay  Law  .....  ........  .............................. .. ..  265
3.5  Radionuclide  Production... .. .............. ........ .............. ...... .  266
13.6  A ctivation  A nalysis ............  .. .... ................ ....  ... ... .... ..   266
. 3 7  Prom pt Radiation  Analysis.... ....... .  ...... ..... .......  .... ... ..  267
Problems ....... . , . , ,... ..........                        274
14,  Scannin   Probe  M icroscopy ... ....................... ..............  ....  .  2 77
14.1  Introduction  ... .... .  .... ....  ....... . .. ......  2.  77
14.2  Scauning  T neling  M icroscopy .... .... .   .................. ........  279
14.3  Atomic  Force  M icroscopy ... . ..........................................  284
Appendix 1. K   for He as Proctile and integer Target Mass ................ 291
Appendix 2. Rutherford Scattering Cross Section of the Elements
for  I  M eV  "H e . ................... ... .. ...............   294
Appendix 3.  HHe'  Stopping Cross Sections  .......... ............. ...   296
Appendix 4. Electron Configurations and Ionization Potentials of Atoms.....  299
Appendix 5. Atomic Scattering Factors ..................... ........  302
Appendix  6.  Electron  Binding  Energies .............. ............. .... ......   305
A 5pe-/l^-nd-i x 6^l-E/ .  L ey   :tron B.I-'P. I.TE.A^AEibS lin   Ene y.S-^LrgB i. „? m'-'°es   :1.   .>.  ,* , -DaAJ IoE  i'  -0±  .  sn«°ig^  .  305^\ 1
Appendix 7. X-Ray Wavelengths (nmr .. .......................       309
Appendix 8. Mass Absorption Coefficient and Densities ....   ...... .  3......  312
Appendix 9.  KLL Auger Energies (eV)  .... .....  .. ........  . .. ... .. .  316
Appendix  10.  Table of the Elements .... ....  .. ....  .. .. .. ........ ..   . ..  319
Appendix 11 Table of Fltoresence Yields for K, L, and M Shells .. ...  325
Appendix 12. Physical Constants, Conversions, and Useful Combinations - .... 327
Appendix  13. iAcronyms . . . ..  ... .. .. ......  .... ..   .   . . .... .  .. .  328



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Thin films, Nanostructured materials