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Preface and Acknowledgements page vii Glossary ofArabic Terms xiii Abbreviations xx Map xxiii 1. Independent Darfur: Land, People, History 1 The economy and the lie ofthe land 1 Population: a complex ethnic mosaic 4 The independent Darfur Sultanate 8 Umm Kwakiyya, the time ofthe bandits 15 Ali Dinar and Darfur's last independent years (1898-1916) 20 2. Darfur and Khartoum (1916-1985): An Unhappy Relationship 25 Colonial benign neglect: romanticism and underdevelopment 25 On the margins ofhistory: Darfur and Sudanese nationalism 34 Reaching for the Centre: thefrustrations of democratic politics in Darfur 36 The Chadian-Libyan factor: a fundamental element of destabilization 42 From maladministration tofamine:the 1984 catastrophe 47 3. From Marginalization to Revolt: Manipulated "Arabism" and "Racial" Anarchy (1985-2003) 54 Consequences ofthe 1984famine 54 v Khartoum's "democratic"politics and the Chadian conflict 58 Libya's "victory"in Chad, a new Darfur famine and the Daud Bolad insurrection 68 Centre versus Periphery:Darfur in a global Sudanese perspective 76 4. Fear at the Centre: From Counter-Insurgency to Quasi-Genocide (2003-2005) 81 Centre versus Centre: the Islamists' internal quarrels and their spillover into Darfur 81 Naivasha and the feel goodfactor" 88 Khartoum wakes up to the danger 91 "Counter-insurgency on the cheap" 99 Improvising a "inalsolution" 110 Foreign intervention and death by attrition 116 5. The World and the Darfur Crisis 124 Media coverage:surfing on the horror charts 125 Embattled humanitarianism 130 "Shuffling papers while Africans die": the international community and the Darfur crisis 138 Was there a genocide in Darfur or not? 148 6. Darfur Agonistes 159 Six months ofunfulfilled hopes after the CPA 159 The race between peace and growing anarchy 164 The growing ethnic anarchy 165 The Chadian civil war and its increasing impact 169 Afalse solution: the Darfur Peace Agreement 176 Notes 185 Bibliography 219