Table of contents for Corporate entrepreneurship and innovation: entrepreneurial development within organizations / Michael H. Morris, Donald F. Kuratko, Jeffrey G. Covin.


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SECTION 1: BUILDING BLOCKS FOR CORPORATE ENTREPRENEURSHIP                      1
CHAPTER 1    THE NEW ENTREPRENEURIAL IMPERATIVE                             3
Introduction                                                              3
Turbulent Environments and the Embattled Corporation                     4
The New Path to Sustainable Competitive Advantage                        7
"What is Entrepreneurship?                                               9
What is Corporate Entrepreneurship?                                     11
Management Versus Entrepreneurship                                       12
Why Companies Lose their Entrepreneurial Way: The Organizational Life Cycle  15
The Entrepreneurial Imperative:A Persistent Sense of Urgency            19
A Model of Corporate Entrepreneurship and Guide to Coming Chapters      20
Summary and Conclusions                                                 24
CHAPTER 2 THE UNIQUE NATURE OF CORPORATE
ENTREPRENEURSHIP                                              26
Introduction                                                            26
Dispelling the Myths and Sidestepping the Folklore                      27
Entrepreneurial Realities: Understanding the Process                     30
How Corporate Entrepreneurship Differs                                  33
Where to Find Entrepreneurship within a Company                         43
General Frameworksfor Understanding Corporate Entrepreneurship          46
Summary and Conclusions                                                 52
CHAPTER 3    LEVELS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ORGANIZATIONS:
ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENSITY                                     54
Introduction                                                            54
Exploring the Dimensions of Entrepreneurship                             54
Entrepreneurial Intensity: Combining Degree and Frequency of Entrepreneurship  69
Applying the Entrepreneurial Grid to Organizations                       70
Applying the Grid at the Level of the Individual Manager                 72
Things We Know and don't Know about Entrepreneurial Intensity            74
Summary and Conclusions                                                 78
CHAPTER 4    THE FORMS OF CORPORATE ENTREPRENEURSHIP                       80
Introduction                                                            80
Corporate Venturing: Bringing New Businesses to the Corporation         81
Strategic Entrepreneurship: Innovating in Pursuit of Competitive Advantage  88
The Business Model as a Vehicle for Corporate Entrepreneurship           93
The Open Innovation Revolution                                            97
Summary and Conclusions                                                  100
ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN OTHER CONTEXTS:
NON-PROFIT AND GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS                       102
Introduction                                                             102
Applying Entrepreneurial Concepts to the Non-Profit and Public Sectors   103
Exploring Entrepreneurship in Non-Profit Organizations                   106
Exploring Entrepreneurship in Government Organizations                   112
How Public Sector Managers View Entrepreneurship                         122
Toward Entrepreneurial Government                                        127
Summary and Conclusions                                                  132
SECTION II: CREATING THE ENTREPRENEURIAL ORGANIZATION                        135
CHAPTRu 6    HUMAN RESOURCES AND THE ENTREPRENEURIAL ORGANIZATION:
THE CREATIVE INDIVIDUAL                                       137
Introduction                                                             137
The Creative Individual in a Company                                     137
The Creative Process                                                    139
The Creative Blocks                                                      142
Creativity Techniques and Creative Quality                               144
The Entrepreneurial Personality                                         145
Motivating Entrepreneurial Behavior                                      148
Are Corporate Entrepreneurs Different?                                   149
Categories of Entrepreneurs                                              151
Critical Roles in Corporate Entrepreneurship                             155
Myths about Corporate Entrepreneurs                                      157
A Final Thought:Are You a Corporate Entrepreneur?                        159
Summary and Conclusions                                                  162
CHAPTER 7   HUMAN RESOURCES AND THE ENTREPRENEURIAL ORGANIZATION:
THE ORGANIZATIONAL PERSPECTIVE                                164
Introduction                                                             164
Understanding the HRM Function                                          165
Creating the Work Environment                                            167
HRM and the Paradox of Creative Abrasion                                 168
HRM Policies and Entrepreneurship                                        169
Some Evidence to Support the Relationships                               173
Motivation and the Critical Role of Reward Systems                       175
Subordinates' View of the Entrepreneurial Manager                        180
The Need for a Champions Program                                         181
Summary and Conclusions                                                  184
CHAPTER 8    CORPORATE STRATEGY AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP                        188
Introduction                                                             188
The Changing Landscape                                                   188
Does the Dominant Logic Fit the Competitive Landscape?                   191
The Role of Strategic Management and Corporate Strategy                  192
Integrating Entrepreneurship with Strategy                               194
Managing Innovation Strategically: A Portfolio Approach                  198
Technology, Entrepreneurship, and Strategy                               203
Technology Limits and Platforms                                          204
Technology-Push Versus Market-Pull Approaches                            206
Key Strategic Concepts: Entrepreneurship as the Driver                   208
Entrepreneurial Strategy: Some Contributing Factors                      212
Implementation Issues: Fatal Visions                                     216
Summary and Conclusions                                                  220
CHAPTER 9    STRUCTURING THE COMPANY FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP                  222
Introduction                                                             222
The Components of Structure                                              222
How Structures Evolve                                                    224
Types of Structures: Links to an Entrepreneurial Strategy                226
An Entrepreneurial Structure and the Concept of Cycling                  233
Structures to Support New Product/Service Development Projects           238
Entrepreneurial Projects: Structures within Structures                   241
Structuring Relationships between Entrepreneurial Initiatives
and the Corporation: Some Organization Design Alternatives             243
Summary and Conclusions                                                  248
CHAPTER 10    DEVELOPING AN ENTREPRENEURIAL CULTURE                         250
Introduction                                                             250
The Nature of Culture in Organizations                                   250
The Pieces and Parts of Culture                                          251
Core Ideology and the Envisioned Future                                  254
Generic Culture Types                                                    255
Elements of an Entrepreneurial Culture                                   258
Entrepreneurial Leadership Through Culture: The Cintas Corporation       262
Exploring a Key Value: Individualism                                     263
A Diferent View of Failure                                               265
Cultures within Cultures                                                 269
Summary and Conclusions                                                  272
SECTION III: ACHIEVING AND SUSTAINING ENTREPRENEURIAL
PERFORMANCE                                                     275
(CHATER 11    CONSTRAINTS ON ENTREPRENEURIAL PERFORMANCE                    277
Introduction                                                              277
A Framework for Understanding the Obstacles                               278
Coming Up Short: Limitations of the Corporate Entrepreneur                285
Corporate Innovators or Rogue Managers:An Ethical Dilemma                 290
Overcoming the Obstacles and Constraints                                  293
Focusing on the Right Obstacles at the Right Time                         297
Summary and Conclusions                                                   299
CHIP(E. 12    LEADING THE ENTREPRENEURIAL
ORGANIZATION                                                  302
Introduction                                                              302
Top-Level Managers in the Entrepreneurial Organization                    302
Middle-Level Managers: Linchpins in the Entrepreneurial Organization      309
First-Level Managers and Non-Managerial Personnel: Entrepreneurship at the
Grassroots Level                                                       313
Entrepreneurial Outcomes                                                  315
Summary and Conclusions                                                   320
CHAPTER 13    ASSESSING ENTREPRENEURIAL PERFORMANCE                         323
Introduction                                                              323
Assessing Entrepreneurial Activity in Companies                           324
A Systematic Approach: The Entrepreneurial Health Audit                   326
Assessing Individual Entrepreneurial Projects                             337
Discovery-Driven Planning                                                 347
Developing a Comprehensive Corporate Venture Plan                         348
Sustainable Entrepreneurship:A Dual Focus                                 351
Summary and Conclusions                                                   361
CHAPTER 14    CONTROL AND ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY                          364
Introduction                                                              364
The Nature of Control in Organizations                                    365
Organizations Out of Control:A Story of Unintended Consequences           367
Dimensions of Control and Entrepreneurship                                369
The Entrepreneurial Philosophy of Control                                 371
Concept of Balance: Simultaneous Looseness and Tightness                  375
Expanding on the Concept of Slack                                         377
Internal Venture Capital Pools                                            378
Control and Costs: The Open Book Revolution                               379
The Concept of Profit Pools                                               381
Summary and Conclusions                                                   386
CHAPTER 15    SUSTAINING ENTREPRENEURIAL PERFORMANCE
IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY ORGANIZATION                     388
Introduction                                                             388
Developing a Personal Approach to the Entrepreneurial Process            389
The Importance of Sponsors                                               393
The Dark Side of Entrepreneurship                                        395
Recognizing and Managing the Triggering Events                           398
Creating a Sense Of Urgency                                              401
The Adaptive Organization                                                404
The New Strategic Imperatives: Embracing Paradoxes                       408
The Entrepreneurial Mindset                                              412
The Entrepreneurial Firm:A Dynamic Incubator                             414
Summary and Conclusions                                                  419



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Entrepreneurship, Organizational change