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SECTION 1: BUILDING BLOCKS FOR CORPORATE ENTREPRENEURSHIP 1 CHAPTER 1 THE NEW ENTREPRENEURIAL IMPERATIVE 3 Introduction 3 Turbulent Environments and the Embattled Corporation 4 The New Path to Sustainable Competitive Advantage 7 "What is Entrepreneurship? 9 What is Corporate Entrepreneurship? 11 Management Versus Entrepreneurship 12 Why Companies Lose their Entrepreneurial Way: The Organizational Life Cycle 15 The Entrepreneurial Imperative:A Persistent Sense of Urgency 19 A Model of Corporate Entrepreneurship and Guide to Coming Chapters 20 Summary and Conclusions 24 CHAPTER 2 THE UNIQUE NATURE OF CORPORATE ENTREPRENEURSHIP 26 Introduction 26 Dispelling the Myths and Sidestepping the Folklore 27 Entrepreneurial Realities: Understanding the Process 30 How Corporate Entrepreneurship Differs 33 Where to Find Entrepreneurship within a Company 43 General Frameworksfor Understanding Corporate Entrepreneurship 46 Summary and Conclusions 52 CHAPTER 3 LEVELS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ORGANIZATIONS: ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENSITY 54 Introduction 54 Exploring the Dimensions of Entrepreneurship 54 Entrepreneurial Intensity: Combining Degree and Frequency of Entrepreneurship 69 Applying the Entrepreneurial Grid to Organizations 70 Applying the Grid at the Level of the Individual Manager 72 Things We Know and don't Know about Entrepreneurial Intensity 74 Summary and Conclusions 78 CHAPTER 4 THE FORMS OF CORPORATE ENTREPRENEURSHIP 80 Introduction 80 Corporate Venturing: Bringing New Businesses to the Corporation 81 Strategic Entrepreneurship: Innovating in Pursuit of Competitive Advantage 88 The Business Model as a Vehicle for Corporate Entrepreneurship 93 The Open Innovation Revolution 97 Summary and Conclusions 100 ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN OTHER CONTEXTS: NON-PROFIT AND GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS 102 Introduction 102 Applying Entrepreneurial Concepts to the Non-Profit and Public Sectors 103 Exploring Entrepreneurship in Non-Profit Organizations 106 Exploring Entrepreneurship in Government Organizations 112 How Public Sector Managers View Entrepreneurship 122 Toward Entrepreneurial Government 127 Summary and Conclusions 132 SECTION II: CREATING THE ENTREPRENEURIAL ORGANIZATION 135 CHAPTRu 6 HUMAN RESOURCES AND THE ENTREPRENEURIAL ORGANIZATION: THE CREATIVE INDIVIDUAL 137 Introduction 137 The Creative Individual in a Company 137 The Creative Process 139 The Creative Blocks 142 Creativity Techniques and Creative Quality 144 The Entrepreneurial Personality 145 Motivating Entrepreneurial Behavior 148 Are Corporate Entrepreneurs Different? 149 Categories of Entrepreneurs 151 Critical Roles in Corporate Entrepreneurship 155 Myths about Corporate Entrepreneurs 157 A Final Thought:Are You a Corporate Entrepreneur? 159 Summary and Conclusions 162 CHAPTER 7 HUMAN RESOURCES AND THE ENTREPRENEURIAL ORGANIZATION: THE ORGANIZATIONAL PERSPECTIVE 164 Introduction 164 Understanding the HRM Function 165 Creating the Work Environment 167 HRM and the Paradox of Creative Abrasion 168 HRM Policies and Entrepreneurship 169 Some Evidence to Support the Relationships 173 Motivation and the Critical Role of Reward Systems 175 Subordinates' View of the Entrepreneurial Manager 180 The Need for a Champions Program 181 Summary and Conclusions 184 CHAPTER 8 CORPORATE STRATEGY AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP 188 Introduction 188 The Changing Landscape 188 Does the Dominant Logic Fit the Competitive Landscape? 191 The Role of Strategic Management and Corporate Strategy 192 Integrating Entrepreneurship with Strategy 194 Managing Innovation Strategically: A Portfolio Approach 198 Technology, Entrepreneurship, and Strategy 203 Technology Limits and Platforms 204 Technology-Push Versus Market-Pull Approaches 206 Key Strategic Concepts: Entrepreneurship as the Driver 208 Entrepreneurial Strategy: Some Contributing Factors 212 Implementation Issues: Fatal Visions 216 Summary and Conclusions 220 CHAPTER 9 STRUCTURING THE COMPANY FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP 222 Introduction 222 The Components of Structure 222 How Structures Evolve 224 Types of Structures: Links to an Entrepreneurial Strategy 226 An Entrepreneurial Structure and the Concept of Cycling 233 Structures to Support New Product/Service Development Projects 238 Entrepreneurial Projects: Structures within Structures 241 Structuring Relationships between Entrepreneurial Initiatives and the Corporation: Some Organization Design Alternatives 243 Summary and Conclusions 248 CHAPTER 10 DEVELOPING AN ENTREPRENEURIAL CULTURE 250 Introduction 250 The Nature of Culture in Organizations 250 The Pieces and Parts of Culture 251 Core Ideology and the Envisioned Future 254 Generic Culture Types 255 Elements of an Entrepreneurial Culture 258 Entrepreneurial Leadership Through Culture: The Cintas Corporation 262 Exploring a Key Value: Individualism 263 A Diferent View of Failure 265 Cultures within Cultures 269 Summary and Conclusions 272 SECTION III: ACHIEVING AND SUSTAINING ENTREPRENEURIAL PERFORMANCE 275 (CHATER 11 CONSTRAINTS ON ENTREPRENEURIAL PERFORMANCE 277 Introduction 277 A Framework for Understanding the Obstacles 278 Coming Up Short: Limitations of the Corporate Entrepreneur 285 Corporate Innovators or Rogue Managers:An Ethical Dilemma 290 Overcoming the Obstacles and Constraints 293 Focusing on the Right Obstacles at the Right Time 297 Summary and Conclusions 299 CHIP(E. 12 LEADING THE ENTREPRENEURIAL ORGANIZATION 302 Introduction 302 Top-Level Managers in the Entrepreneurial Organization 302 Middle-Level Managers: Linchpins in the Entrepreneurial Organization 309 First-Level Managers and Non-Managerial Personnel: Entrepreneurship at the Grassroots Level 313 Entrepreneurial Outcomes 315 Summary and Conclusions 320 CHAPTER 13 ASSESSING ENTREPRENEURIAL PERFORMANCE 323 Introduction 323 Assessing Entrepreneurial Activity in Companies 324 A Systematic Approach: The Entrepreneurial Health Audit 326 Assessing Individual Entrepreneurial Projects 337 Discovery-Driven Planning 347 Developing a Comprehensive Corporate Venture Plan 348 Sustainable Entrepreneurship:A Dual Focus 351 Summary and Conclusions 361 CHAPTER 14 CONTROL AND ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY 364 Introduction 364 The Nature of Control in Organizations 365 Organizations Out of Control:A Story of Unintended Consequences 367 Dimensions of Control and Entrepreneurship 369 The Entrepreneurial Philosophy of Control 371 Concept of Balance: Simultaneous Looseness and Tightness 375 Expanding on the Concept of Slack 377 Internal Venture Capital Pools 378 Control and Costs: The Open Book Revolution 379 The Concept of Profit Pools 381 Summary and Conclusions 386 CHAPTER 15 SUSTAINING ENTREPRENEURIAL PERFORMANCE IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY ORGANIZATION 388 Introduction 388 Developing a Personal Approach to the Entrepreneurial Process 389 The Importance of Sponsors 393 The Dark Side of Entrepreneurship 395 Recognizing and Managing the Triggering Events 398 Creating a Sense Of Urgency 401 The Adaptive Organization 404 The New Strategic Imperatives: Embracing Paradoxes 408 The Entrepreneurial Mindset 412 The Entrepreneurial Firm:A Dynamic Incubator 414 Summary and Conclusions 419