Table of contents for Phase behavior of petroleum reservoir fluids / Karen Schou Pedersen, Peter L. Christensen.


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Chapter 1
Petroleum        Reservoir Fluids ...............................................................................................................
1.1      Reservoir Fluid Constituents.............................................................................                 ...........1......
1.2      Properties of Reservoir Fluid                Constituents ..........................................     ........................... ...... 1
1.3      Phase Envelopes ..............................................................................        ...................................  6
1.4      Classification of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids .........................                                                     ...............7
References ......................................................................................     ...........    ...............1..........  11
Chapter 2
Compositional Analyses..............................................................              ...............................................13
2.1      Analyzing        a Bottom       Hole Sample by            Gas Chromatography                (GC).....................................   22
2.2      Reservoir Fluid Composition                   from    Separator Samples.......................................................26
2.3      Mud-Contaminated               Samples....................................................      ........................................30
2.3.1      Reservoir Fluids to            C7,   or C     , ........................................................................... .... 31
2.3.2      Reservoir Fluids to C2,               . ................................................ ......................................33
2.3.3      Reservoir Fluids to            C      ............................................................................................33
2.4      Quality      Control of Reservoir Fluid                Samples .................................           ..................35
References.................................................             .................................................... .....................................39
Chapter 3
PVT     Experiments...................,.........................................................................................................41
3.1      Constant-Mass Expansion Experiment .....................................................                             ..     .......     43
3.2      Constant-Volume Depletion Experiment .....................................                               ......    ........             46
3.3      Differential Liberation Experiment..................................................................................48
3.4      Separator Test            ...................................................................................................           54
3.5      Swelling       Test .................................................................................. ..................................57
3.6      Viscosity      Experiment........................................................................   ......................................58
3.7      Slim    Tube Experiment.........................................            ..............  .............................................59
3.8      Multiple-Contact Experiment .................................................................................................            60
References .........................................................................................    .........................................62
Chapter 4
Cubic Equations of State .............................................................             ..............................................63
4.1      The van der Waals Equation .....................................................................                .......................63
4.2      Redlich-Kwong             Equation ......................................................................................................66
4.3      The Soave-Redlich-Kwong                     (SRK) Equation ............................           ...............................68
4.4      Peng-Robinson            (PR) Equation .................................................         ....................................... 71
4.5      Peneloux Volume Correction....                       ........................................................................ ............... 73
4.6      Other Cubic Equations of State .................................................                  ...................................... 76
4.7      Equilibrium         Calculations ........................................................................     .........................77
4.8      Nonclassical Mixing              Rules ..............................................................................................78
4.9      Other Equations of State ...............................................................................            ................... 78
References ...............................................................................................................    .......................78
Chapter 5
C,7   Characterization............................................................................................................81
5.1      Classes of Components .................                   ...................................................................................81
5.1.1       Defined      Components ........................................................................................                .81
5.1.2       C7, Fractions............................................................................................        .............83
5.1.3       Plus Fraction..................................................................................          ......................86
5.2      Binary      Interaction       Coefficients .....................................................................        ...................92
5.3      Lumping........................................................................................................................              92
5.4      Delumping ...            ................................................................................................................99
5.5      Mixing        of M   ultiple Fluids....................................................................................................      00
5.6      Characterizing of Multiple Compositions to the Same Pseudocomponents.......................103
5.7      Heavy       Oil Compositions ...........................................................................            .....................106
5.7.1       Heavy      Oil Reservoir Fluid             Compositions....................................              .......               106
5.7.2       Characterization           of Heavy        Oil M    ixture...............................................                      106
References .....................................................................................................................................112
Chapter 6
Flash     and    Phase Envelope Calculations ........                      ...............................................................................115
6.1      Pure Component Vapor Pressures from                            Cubic Equations of State ....................................               116
6.2      M   ixture Saturation           Points from        Cubic Equations of State..................................................                18
6.3      Flash     Calculations ..............................................................................................................       120
6.3.1       Stability Analysis................................................................................................120
6.3.2       Solving      the Flash       Equations................................................         ..............................125
6.3.3       Multiphase PT-Flash ............................................................................................ ...126
6.3.4       Three Phase PT-Flash                with    a Pure Water Phase......................1..............................131
6.3.5       Other Flash         Specifications.........................................................................................133
6.4      Phase Envelope Calculations...................................................                    .......................................134
6.5      Phase Identification ..........................................................................................................             138
References .............................................................................................       ...................................139
Chapter 7
PVT      Simulation....              ........................................................................141
7.1      Constant       M   ass Expansion           (CME)..............................................       .................................... 141
7.2      Constant Volume Depletion                    (CVD) ......................................................                                  143
7.3      Differential Liberation .........................................147
7.4      Separator Test             .............................................................................................................   148
7.5      Swelling       Test .................................................................................................................      148
7.6      W   hat to    Expect from          a PVT       Simulation ....................................            ..............                   160
Chapter 8
Physical Properties........................                ........................     .....      ...................................................161
8.1      Density...........           . ..................................................................................................................... 161
8.2      Enthalpy..................................            ........  ...................................................................................161
8.3      Internal Energy ....................................................................................          ...........................163
8.4      Entropy ...........................................................................................................................163
8.5      Heat Capacity ...............................................................................          ..................................163
8.6      Joule-Thomson             Coefficient........................................            ................     ..................... ......... 164
8.7      Velocity       of Sound.........................................     ........................................................................ 164
8.8      Example Calculations.............................................................               ........................................... 164
References ...................................................................      ...............................................    ..............168
Chapter 9
Regression to Experimental PVT Data .................................................................................. 169
9.1    Shortcomings of Parameter Regression .............................................          .......   169
9.2    Analyzing for Errors in Compositional Data................................     ............           170
9.2.1    Volume Translation Parameter.................................................................................171
9.3    T,, Pc, and 0o of C, Fractions......................................1........................................................71
9.4    Regressing on Coefficients in Property Correlations .......................................................... 172
9.5    Object Functions and Weight Factors ..............................................................172
9.6    Example of Regression for Gas Condensate .............................                                173
9.7    Tuning on Single Pseudocomponent Properties.................................................................... 179
9.8    N ear-Critical Fluids ......................................................... .............................................181
9.9    Fluids Characterized to the Same Pseudocomponents...............................................1...... 85
References ....    ..... ................................ ................................................................................ 196
Chapter 10
Transport Properties .......................................................................................197
10.1  V iscosity  ............................................................................................................. . .......... 197
10.1.1 Corresponding States Viscosity Models.............................        ...................... ..........199
10.1.2 Adaptation of Corresponding States Viscosity Model to Heavy Oils..................206
10.1.3 Lohrenz-Bray-Clark (LBC) Method ....................................................................207
10.1.4  Other Viscosity Models ......................................................................................208
10.1.5 Viscosity Data and Simulation Results..............................................................209
10.2  Thermal Conductivity .....................    ............................................................................. 215
10.2.1 Data and Simulation Results for Thermal Conductivity .....................................220
10.3   Gas/Oil Surface Tension.................................................................................................220
10.3.1 Model for Interfacial Tension................................................ ...................221
10.3.2 Data and Simulation Results for Interfacial Tensions....................................       225
10.4   Diffusion  Coefficients......................................................... ............................................225
R eferences............................................................................................. ...................................227
Chapter 11
Wax Formation.......................................................................................229
11.1   Experimental Studies of Wax Precipitation......................................................................229
11.2  Thermodynamic Description of Melting of a Pure Component .......................237
11.3 Modeling of Wax Precipitation ..................................243
11.3.1 Activity Coefficient Approach..................................................................................244
11.3.2 Ideal Solid Solution Wax Models ....................................   .............           246
11.4  Wax PT Flash Calculations....................................... .....................................................251
11.5  Viscosity of Oil-Wax Suspensions ......................................................               252
11.6  W  ax  Inhibitors  ............................................................................... .................................253
R eferences  ....................................................................................................................................257
Chapter 12
Asphaltenes ................................   ......................................................259
12.1  Experimental Techniques for Studying Asphaltene Precipitation .....................................263
12.1.1 Quantification of Amount of Asphaltenes.....................................                   263
12.1.2 Detection of Asphaltene Onset Points ..............................................263
12.1.2.1 Gravimetric Technique ................................................. ..  ......263
12.1.2.2   Acoustic Resonance Technique ..............................................................264
12.1.2.3   Light-Scattering Technique....................................................................264
12.1.2.4   Filtration and Other Experimental Techniques..............................265
12.1.3 Experimental Data for Asphaltene Onset Pressures .......................................            265
12.2   A sphaltene   M  odels ............................................................ .............................................266
12.2.1 Models Based on Cubic Equation of State.......................................268
12.2.2 Polymer Solution Models...................................................................................270
12.2.3 Thermodynamic-Colloidal Approach ...............................................273
12.2.4   PC-SAFT Model ................................................................................................274
12.2.5   Other Asphaltene Models ...................................................................................280
12.2.6   Recommendations with Respect to Asphaltene Modeling .....................................281
References ........................................................................................................................... 281
Chapter 13
G as  H ydrates  ................................................ ............................................................................285
13.1   Types   of  H ydrates............................................................ ..............................................285
13.2   Modeling of Hydrate Formation ....................................................................................289
13.3   H ydrate   Inhibitors............................................................ ..............................................294
13.4   Hydrate Simulation Results............................................................................................295
13.5   Hydrate P/T Flash Calculations .....................................................................................298
13.5.1   H ydrate  Fugacities............................................................. ....................................300
13.5.2   Flash Simulation Technique .......................................................303
References............................................................................... .........................304
Chapter 14
Compositional Variations with Depth......................................................................................307
14.1   Theory of Isothermal Reservoir ............................................................................307
14.1.1 Depth Gradient Calculations for Isothermal Reservoirs..........................................309
14.2   Theory of Nonisothermal Reservoir .............................................         .........          315
14.2.1 Absolute Enthalpies...................................................................................................324
14.2.2   Example: Calculations on Reservoir Fluids........................................325
R eferences   .............................................................................................. ..................................330
Chapter 15
Minimum      Miscibility Pressure ................................................................................................331
15.1   Three-Component Mixtures ........................................................................................... 331
15.2   MMP of Multicomponent Mixtures.........................................       ................................. 336
15.2.1 Tie Line Approach..............................................................................................336
15.2.2   Cell-to-Cell Simulation .......................................................................................340
R eferences   .......................................................................................... ......................................344
Chapter 16
Formation Water and Hydrate Inhibitors............................................................................... 345
16.1   Hydrocarbon-Water Phase Equilibrium              Models ...........................345
16.1.1 Approach of Kabadi and Danner.....................................         .............            348
16.1.2   Asymmetric Mixing Rules ....................................................... ..................350
16.1.3   Huron and Vidal Mixing Rule...................................................  ..     ........   352
16.1.4   Phase Equilibria for Hydrocarbon-Salt Water...................................             ....357
16.1.5   Association Models ............................................................................................358
16.2   Experimental Hydrocarbon-Water Phase Equilibrium                  Data........................360
16.3      W   ater    Properties ..........1...................................................................................................... 363
16.3.1       Viscosity         of W     ater-Inhibitor M              ixtur.es.....                      ....      ....................................................... 367
16.3.2       Properties          of Salt W        ater .............................................               ......................................367
16.3.3       Oil-W       ater    Emulsion          Viscosities ...............................................................................367
16.4      Phase       Envelopes           of Hydrocarbon-Aqueous                          M   ixtures ........................................................368
References ...................................................................................................................................... 370
Chapter 17
Scale      Precipitation ......................................................                   ......... ...........................................................   373
17.1      Criteria       for    Salt Precipitation ...............................................................................................373
17.2      Equilibrium            Constants..................................................................................                                ..........376
17.3      Activity        Coeffi     cients............................................................................................................379
17.4      Solution         Procedure............................................................................................................... 385
17.5      Exam       ple   Calculations...........................................................................................................389
References ...................................................................................................................................... 391



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Petroleum reserves Mathematical models, Petroleum Geology Mathematical models, Phase rule and equilibrium, Thermodynamic equilibrium, Heavy oil, Hydrocarbons