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Acknowledgments vii I. Immigrant Assimilation i Popular Images of Cubans and Mexicans I Assimilation Theory: Cultural and Structural Emphases 2 The Structural Assimilation of Cubans and Mexicans 6 Migration Theory: Individual and Structural Perspectives 9 2. Lending Cuban Political Immigrants a Hand I8 Portrait of the Cuban Exiles: Waves of Migration 18 On the Heels of the Revolutionary Transformation 18 Escape as Escape Can 23 Freedom Flights and the Revolutionary Offensive 23 The Dialogue: A Brief Collaboration 27 The Mariel Exodus 29 The Cuban Refugee Program 40 The Resettlement Program 43 The Public Schools: Bilingual Education 44 Retraining Programs for Professionals 46 College Tuition Loans so50 Citizenship 51 3. Ignoring Mexican Economic Immigrants 53 Portrait of the Mexican Immigrants: Prolonged Labor Migration 53 Early Frontier Migration 53 World War I: The First Silent Invasion 58 The Depression: Repatriation 60 World War II: The Bracero Program 62 A Delimited Flow 69 The New Silent Invasion 70 4. The Value of Being a Cuban Political Immigrant 76 Methods 76 The Immigrants' Backgrounds 79 Data and Variables 84 Dependent Variables 84 Independent Variables 88 The Value of Being a Cuban 93 Returns to the Human Capital of Cubans and Mexicans 96 Cubans and Mexicans Who Immigrated during 1960-1970 103 Cubans and Mexicans Who Immigrated during 1945-1959 io6 5. Workers in Labor Markets: Cubans and Mexicans 10o8 Segmented Labor Markets 108 Cubans and Mexicans in Labor Markets 113 The Value of Being a Cuban 115 Labor Market Consequences 126 Returns to the Human Capital of Cubans and Mexicans 128 Impact of Labor Markets 128 6. The Functions of Political and Economic Migration 135 The Type of Migration and the Role of the State 135 Theories of the State 136 The Functions of Economic Migration 139 Source of Cheap Labor: The United States 139 The Safety Valve: Mexico 143 The Functions of Political Migration 146 Externalizing Dissent: Cuba 146 Symbols as Weapons: The United States 154 7. Closing Observations 165 Appendix A. Zero-Order Correlations among Variables 171 Appendix B. Classification of Industrial Labor Markets 18o Notes 183 Bibliography 215