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1 INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 1 2 THE ISAURIAN REVOLT 11 Geographical and Political Boundaries 13. The Balance of Power: Isaurians and Germans 15. The Emperor Zeno 18. Anastasius and the Isaurians 21. The First Years of Hostilities 22. Victory for Anastasius. 26. 3 EASTERN FOREIGN POLICY 29 Relations with Arab tribes: military negotiations, religious affiliation and economic policy 29. The Persian War 502-506 47. The Eastern Defensive Building Programme 65. The Eastern Frontier 506-518 70. 4 WESTERN FOREIGN POLICY 73 I. Constantinople and 'Old Rome' 73 Theoderic's Constitutional Position 80. The Doctrinal Schism of 491-506 89. War in the Balkans 91. Diplomacy and the West 93. The Doctrinal Schism of 516 100. Conclusion 102. II. Foreign Policy in the Balkans 104 The Long Wall 106. The Defensive Building Programme in the Balkans 109. 5 RELIGIOUS POLICY: THE SEARCH FOR COMPROMISE 115 Council of Chalcedon: Background and Aftermath 116. The Accession of Anastasius 125. Relations with the Popes: Gelasius 128; Anastasius II 132. The Laurentian Schism 133. Anastasius and the East: the Deposition of Euphemius 136. The Rise of the Monophysites 139. The Triumph of the Monophysites, 508-512 145. The Trishagion, 512, and Riots in Constantinople 156. The Orthodox Backlash 157. Developments in the Balkans 163. The Revolt of Vitalian 164. The Beginning of the Conflict 167. The Second Stage of Conflict 169. The Defeat of Vitalian 175. Further Negotiations with the Pope 180. Conclusion 182. 6 ADMINISTRATION AND DOMESTIC POLICY 184 Overview of the economy and administration of the later Roman Empire 185. The Court and Imperial Officials 190. Financial Reforms 193. The Chrysargyron 194. The Res Privata and Patrimonium 197. The Commutation of the Land Tax 199. The Coinage Reform 202. The Introduction of the Vindices and the Defensor Civitatis; the Decline of the Curiales? 207. Agrarian Legislation 211. Army Reforms 213. Other Economic and Social Reforms 216. The Abydus Edict 217. Reductions and rebates of taxes 221. Legislation concerning officials, family matters, the courts and the judiciary 222. Governing the people; factions, riots and the emperor's response 223. Conclusion 229. 7 ANASTASIUS' BUILDING PROGRAMME 230 Utilitarian Projects 231. Bathhouses and city improvements 233. Building for prestige: churches 238. Imperial cities 242 8 CONCLUSION 246