Table of contents for Sensory evaluation techniques / Morten C. Meilgaard , Gail Vance Civille, B. Thomas Carr.


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Chapter 1 Introduction to Sensory Techniques
1.1      Introduction               ........................................................................................................................                 1
1.2       Developm            ent of Sensory                 Testing........................................................                  ...................            1
1.3       H   um    an     Subjects         as    Instrum         ents.................................................................................                      2
1.4       Conducting               a   Sensory          Study        .....................................................................................                   3
References ...................................................................................................................................                               5
Chapter 2 Sensory Attributes and the Way We Perceive Them
2.1       Introduction              .................................................                                                                                         7
2.2       Sensory          A   ttributes         ......................................................................................................                       7
2.3       The      H   um    an     Senses ..................................................                 ..................................................           12
2.4       Perception             at Threshold               and      Above...................................................                                              22
References .................................................                                                                                                               22
Chapter 3 Controls for Test Room, Products, and Panel
3.1       Introduction              ......................................................................................................................                 25
3.2       Test Controls .....................................................................................................................                              25
3.3       Product Controls ..............................................................................................................                                  34
3.4       Panelist Controls ..............................................................................................................                                 37
References ..................................................................................................................................                              38
Chapter 4 Factors Influencing Sensory Verdicts
4.1       Introduction               ......................................................................................................................                 39
4.2       Physiological Factors ................................................                               .................................................           39
4.3       Psychological Factors                        .....................................................................            ...........................        40
4.4       Poor       Physical Condition                     .................................................................................................              43
References            .........................................................             ..................................................                         ..  43
Chapter 5 Measuring Responses
5.1       Introduction              ......................................................................................................................                 45
5.2       Psychophysical Theory                           ................................................................................................                 48
5.3       Classification.....................................................................................................................                               53
5  .4     G   ra  d in  g  ..............................................................................................................................                   54
5.5       Ranking................................................                    ......................................................................                 55
5.6       Scaling...............................................................................................................................                            55
References ....               .............................................................................................................                                  60
Chapter 6 Overall Difference Tests: Does a Sensory Difference Exist
between Samples?
6.1    In trod u ction  ......................................................................................................................  63
6.2    The Unified Approach to Difference and Similarity Testing................................. 63
6.3    Trian  gle  Test......................................................................................................................  65
6.4    D u o-Trio   Test....................................................................................................................  72
6.5    Tw  o-out-of-Five     Test................................................ ..................................................  80
6.6    Same/Different Test (or Simple Difference Test)..........................................         ...... 84
6.7    "A  "-"N   ot  A "  Test............................................................................................................  88
6.8    Difference-from-Control Test ................................................................................... 92
6.9    Sequen    tial  Tests  ..............................................................................................................  100
R eferen  ces  ................................................................................................................................  104
Chapter 7 Attribute Difference Tests: How Does Attribute X Differ between
Samples?
7.1    Introduction: Paired Comparison Designs .......................................................            105
7.2    Directional Difference Test: Comparing Two Samples...................                    ..................... 105
7.3    Pairwise Ranking Test: Friedman Analysis--Comparing Several
Samples in All Possible Pairs...................................                                           109
7.4    Introduction: Multisample Difference Tests-Block Designs .............................. 112
7.5    Simple Ranking Test: Friedman Analysis-Randomized (Complete)
B lock  D  esign  ...................................................................................................................  113
7.6    Multisample Difference Test: Rating Approach-Evaluation by Analysis
of Variance (ANOVA) ........................................                                               117
7.7 Multisample Difference Test: BIB Ranking Test (Balanced Incomplete
Block Design)-Friedman Analysis.....................................                                       122
7.8    Multisample Difference Test: BIB Rating Test (Balanced Incomplete
Block Design)-Evaluation by Analysis of Variance....................                      .................... 125
References .................................................. 128
Chapter 8 Determining Threshold
8.1    In trod u ction  ....................................................................................................................  129
8.2    D efin ition s.......................................................................................................................  130
8.3    Applications of Threshold Determinations .....................................                             132
R eferen  ces  ................................................................................................................................  138
Chapter 9 Selection and Training of Panel Members
9.1    In trod u ction  ....................................................................................................................  141
9.2    Panel Development ........................................                                                 141
9.3    Selection and Training for Difference Tests .....................................                          143
9.4    Selection and Training of Panelists for Descriptive Testing ................................ 147
9.5    Panel Performance and Motivation .....................................                                     154
Appendix 9.1         Prescreening Questionnaires..............................................................     157
Appendix 9.2         Panel Leadership Advice..................................                                     165
R eferen  ces  ..................................................................................................................................  171
Chapter 10 Descriptive Analysis Techniques
to0.1  D efin ition .............................................. ........................................................... ......  173
10.2   Field  of  A pplication .......................................................................................................  173
10.3   Components of Descriptive Analysis.....................................                        174
10.4   Commonly Used Descriptive Test Methods..........................                               178
10.5   Application of Descriptive Analysis Panel Data .....................................           183
R e fe ren sce s  .................................................................................................................................  18 6
Chapter 11 The Spectrum"' Descriptive Analysis Method
11.1   Designing a Descriptive Procedure...................................................................   189
11.2   Myths about the Spectrum         Descriptive Analysis Method................................... 189
11.3   Term  in ology  ...................................................................................................................  191
11.4   Intensity .................................................. 192
11.5   O ther  O p tions  ................................................................................................................  192
11.6   Modified Short-Version Spectrum          Descriptive Procedures for Quality
Assurance, Shelf-Life Studies, etc. .....................................                      193
Appendix 11.1       Spectrum    Terminology for Descriptive Analysis ............................... 194
Appendix 11.2       Spectrum    Intensity Scales for Descriptive Analysis........................... 213
Appendix 11.3       A Streamlined Approach to Spectrum             References................................ 224
Appendix 11.4       Spectrum    Descriptive Analysis Product Lexicons ............................. 232
Appendix 11.5       Spectrum    Descriptive Analysis Examples of Full
Product Descriptions.....................................                         239
Appendix 11.6       Spectrum    Descriptive Analysis Training Exercises............................ 245
References .................................................. 253
Chapter 12 Affective Tests: Consumer Tests and In-House Panel
Acceptance Tests
12.1   Purpose and Applications ......................................                                255
12.2   The Subjects/Consumers in Affective Tests.....................................                 259
12.3   C hoice  of  Test  Location  .................................................................................................  263
12.4   Affective Test Methods-Fuzzy Front End............................................................. 265
12.5   Affective Methods: Qualitative.............................                                    269
12.6   Affective Methods: Quantitative .....................................                          271
12.7   Internet Research ........................................                                     281
12.8   Using Other Sensory Methods to Uncover Insights ....................             .................... 283
Appendix 12.1       Screeners for Consumer Studies-Focus Group, CLT, and HUT....... 294
Appendix 12.2       Discussion Guide-Group or One-on-One Interviews ..................... 298
Appendix 12.3       Questionnaires for Consumer Studies .....................................          300
Appendix 12.4       Protocol Design for Consumer Studies.....................................         305
Appendix 12.5       Additional Fuzzy Front End References.....................                        308
R eferen ces  ..................................................................................................................................  309
Chapter 13 Basic Statistical Methods
13.1   In trod u ction  ....................................................................................................................  313
13.2   Summarizing Sensory Data................................................................       314
13.3   Statistical Hypothesis Testing .....................................                           323
13.4   Thurstonian Scaling ........................................                                   334
13.5      The Statistical Design               of Sensory         Panel Studies.....................................                           338
13.6      Appendix          on   Probability ...............         ......................................................................... 350
References ................................................. 355
Chapter 14 Advanced Statistical Methods
14  .1    In  tro d  u ction    ....................................................................................................................  357
14.2      Data Relationships ......................................                                                                            357
14.3      Preference M          apping ...........................................                                                             375
14.4      The Treatment Structure of an                      Experimental Design                 ........................................... 391
References ............................................................................................................................ 404
Chapter 15 Guidelines for Choice of Technique
15  .1    In  trod   u ction    ....................................................................................................................  407
Reference ,            ................................................................ 412
Chapter 16 Guidelines for Reporting Results
16.1      In  trod   u ction    ....................................................................................................................  4 13
16.2      Summary ..................................................                                                                           413
16.3      Objective .............................................................................       ....................................... 413
16.4      Experimental.................................................................          ............................................ 414
16.5      Results and          Discussion         ........................................                                                     415
R eferen     ces   ......  ...................................................................................................... . .....      4 17



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Sensory evaluation