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Chapter I: The Origins of the 1964 Revolution 3 Chapter II: Castelo Branco: Cleaning House-April 1964-March 1965 18 The Military Take Control 18 The New Government: A UDN-Military Alliance 21 The Purges and the Torture 23 Supporters and Critics 27 Economic Stabilization: A Quasi-Orthodox Approach 29 Wage Policy 33 Convincing the Foreign Lenders and Investors 35 The UDN: A Viable Political Base? 39 Defeat at the Polls and the Hard-Line Reaction 42 Chapter III: Castelo Branco: The Attempt to Institutionalize 46 The Second Institutional Act and Its Political Aftermath 46 Sources of Opposition 49 Dealing with the Succession 51 The UDN and Lacerda Again 53 The Economic Scene in 1966 55 National Security and a New Legal Structure 56 The Economic Record of the Castelo Branco Years 58 Strengthening the Market Economy 60 Castelo Branco's Political Legacy 63 Chapter IV: Costa e Silva: The Military Tighten Their Grip 66 A New Cast 66 The New Economic Strategy 68 Politics: Back to "Normal"? 71 From the Broad Front to a Challenge by Students and Workers 73 Arousing the Hardliners 79 The Authoritarian Crackdown 81 The Guerrilla Emerges 84 The Economy: Pragmatism Pays Off 89 A Paralyzed President and a Succession Crisis 93 The U.S.: A Missing Ambassador and Some Second Thoughts 101 Chapter V: M6dici: The Authoritarian Face 105 The Personality, Cabinet, and Governing Style of M6dici 105 PR in a New Vein 110 M6dici and Electoral Politics, 1969-72 112 The Liquidation of the Guerrilla Threat 117 The Uses of Repression 125 The Church: An Opposition Force 135 The Economic Boom and Its Critics 138 Opening the Amazon: Solution for the Northeast? 144 Continued Electoral Manipulation and the Choice of Geisel 149 Human Rights and Brazil-U.S. Relations 154 Taking Stock: What Kind of Regime? 156 Chapter VI: Geisel: Toward Abertura 160 The Return of the Castelistas 160 Liberalization from Within? 164 November 1974: An MDB Victory 171 "Decompression" Under Fire 173 New Economic Problems 178 Voices from Civil Society 180 Planalto Problem: How to Win Elections 188 Government Response: The "April Package" 190 A U.S.-Brazil Rift: Nuclear Technology and Human Rights 192 Geisel Subdues the Hard Line 197 The "New Unionism" in Action 204 The Economic Record Since 1974 and Geisel's Legacy 206 Chapter VII: Figueiredo: The Twilight of Military Government 210 Complexion of the New Government 211 The 1979 Strikes 212 Delfim Neto Again 215 The Amnesty Issue 217 Reformulating the Parties 219 Another Challenge from Labor 222 Explosion on the Right 227 The Balance of Payments: A New Vulnerability 230 The 1982 Elections 233 The Economy in Deep Recession 236 The Campaign for Direct Presidential Elections 240 PDS Presidential Aspirants 244 The Victory of the Democratic Alliance 250 Economic Turnaround 254 Chapter VIII: The New Republic: Prospects for Democracy 256 How Much Did Democratization Depend on the Person of Tancredo? 257 How Did the Military React to Democratization? 267 How Did the Democratic Government Deal with the Hard Economic Choices? 273 The Foreign Debt: Temporary Breathing Room 274 Piano Cruzado: A New Response to Inflation 276 Conclusion 283 Did Democratization Include Efforts to Create a More Equal Society? 283 Trends in Social and Economic Indicators Under the Authoritarian Regime 284 Record of the New Regime 288 Urban Labor 289 Agrarian Reform 298 Treatment of Prisoners 302 Postscript: Economic Realities and Political Fallout 303 Notes 311