Table of contents for Fluoride in drinking water : a scientific review of EPA's standards / Committee on Fluoride in Drinking Water, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Division on Earth and Life Sciences, National Research Council of the National Academies.


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Fluoride in Drinking Water, 14
History of EPA's Regulation of Fluoride, 16
SConmittee's Task, .18
Committee's Approach, 21
Structure of the Report, 22
f' EASURES F EXPOSURE TO FLUO IDE IN THE :UITED SATES
Sources of Fiuoride Exposure, 24
Recent Estimates of Total Fluoride Exposure, 54
otal Exposure to Fluoride, 55
iumnar' of Exposure Assessment, 64
Bionairkers of Exposure, Effect, and Susceptibility, 69
Fimdings, 81
R commendati ons, 87
3     PH RMACOKINeTICS OF FLUORIDE                            89
Overview of Fluoride C hemistry,  ts, and  easurement, 89
Short Review of Fluoride Pharmacokinetics: Absorption,
Distr bution, and Elimination, 90
Ph armcokinetic Mode s, 92
Fluoride Concentrations i- Human Bone Versus Water
Concentration, 93
Fluoria  Con entr-iations in Bones after Cinical Studios, 96
cil paative  shil aokins oi f ca Rats an Fuans t i, 98
uig;f lu orie CmpOunids, 99
Fars  olif'ing PharlCo kimtis ad K mheir Impl ications
iIr Potentialy Se iscptile Popul ations, 99
Findings, 101I
K' i ii Roai    dna.0
Research Recommendations, 101
4 : :EFFEICT IF FI..RDE O TE ETH                        103
F ndings     sts 127
Re  mendu  a itions 130
s<             t M u s'tSKELEL  1 EFFCT                  3
Che in str) of uinfide As Ir Rei ates t Mineralizing Tises, 131
El ct If FllirCidC on Cel Funcion,) 133
Effecs oft Iioi'd o Huo ian Seit i Metabolsm, 138
E    f    uect r o oide on lionidrcue Mletabolismo and Arhritis, 177
Fii 1gs '  78
Re omm endionol s, 180
6  REi ODLit I   NI N  iVELOPMEr TAIN  EFFECTS OF FLIORIDE  i8
Reiproductiiefe, 181t
Lo Dveulo t  Effc 1 ts, 193
Fiig, 20 4
Rc a mmentdatiol s, 204
7 NE Ti iO  IcT AND \EULOBEH\aViAL EFFECTr         0
H mar Studi , 205i
Ai Ia Studoies, 2114
'tiErucJamici Effects and Mcechanismns, 218
Ficdiings 220
Riin a> -l A 00
Rcc m mued-atiios 222
S    EFFECISi  N TIE ENDOCRINE SYSTIE 2i24
T yoid F iculr Cells, 224
Thyir id Prafllitula C ls, l 23
"Prathyroin i la'ds,238
Pine al Gi d, 252
t'er indorie  Or gans, 25A
S mmar y,260
Rn i e n a ii n s, 6
)9   OEECTS ON THE GASTROINTESTINAL, RENAL, HEPATIC,
AN  IMMUNE SYSTEMS                                   2 8
GI System, 268
The Renal System, 2;0
Hepatic System, 292
Immunie System, 29'
Findings, 295
Recornmendatons, 302
to    GFNOTOXILITY AND 3CARCNOGENICITY                    304
Genotoxicit, 304
CarcinogemciLtv 316
EPA Guiteiines ant Practice in Setting MCLGs Regarding
Carainogenicity, 334
Findigs, 335
Recommendations, 338
SDRINING WATER SIANDARDS FOR F LUORIDE               340
-urrent Methods for Setting Standards for Drinking  ter, 340
Ne Risk Assessment Considerations, 342
.iuoride Standards, 345
iindings and Reco immndations, 352



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Fluorine Physiological effect, Water Fluoridation United States