Table of contents for An American dilemma : the Negro problem and modern democracy / Gunnar Myrdal ; with a new introduction by Sissela Bok.


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Introduction to the Transaction Fiftieth Anniversary Edition       xxi
Author's Preface to the Twentieth Anniversary Edition           xxxiii
Postscript Twenty Years Later, by Arnold Rose                   xxxvii
Foreword, by Frederick P. Keppel                                    Iv
Author's Preface to the First Edition                              lix
Acknowledgments                                                   lxxi
Introduction                                                    Ixxvii
1. The Negro Problem as a Moral Issue
2. Valuations and Beliefs
3. A White Man's Problem
4. Not an Isolated Problem
5. Some Further Notes on the Scope and Direction of This
Study
6. A Warning to the Reader
PART I. THE APPROACH
Chapter i. American Ideals and the American Conscience               3
I. Unity of Ideals and Diversity of Culture
2. American Nationalism
3. Some Historical Reflections
4. The Roots of the American Creed in the Philosophy of
Enlightenment
5. The Roots in Christianity
6. The Roots in English Law
7. American Conservatism
8. The American Conception of Law and Order
9. Natural Law and American Puritanism
io. The Faltering Judicial Order
Si. Intellectual Defeatism
12. "Lip-Service"
13. Value Premises in This Study
Chapter 2. Encountering the Negro Problem                           26
I. On the Minds of the Whites
2. To the Negroes Themselves
3. Explaining the Prpblem Away
4. Explorations in Escape
5. The Etiquette of Discussion
v
6. The Convenience of Ignorance
7. Negro and White Voices
8. The North and the South
Chapter 3. Facets of the Negro Problem                                 50
1. American Minority Problems
2. The Anti-Amalgamation Doctrine
3. The White Man's Theory of Color Caste
4. The "Rank Order of Discriminations"
5. Relationships between Lower Class Groups
6. The Manifoldness and the Unity of the Negro Problem
7. The Theory of the Vicious Circle
8. A Theory of Democracy
PART II. RACE
Chapter 4. Racial Beliefs                                              83
1. Biology and Moral Equalitarianism
2. The Ideological Clash in America
3. The Ideological Compromise
4. Reflections in Science
5. The Position of the Negro Writers
6. The Racial Beliefs of the Unsophisticated
7. Beliefs with a Purpose
8. Specific Rationalization Needs
9. Rectifying Beliefs
io. The Study of Beliefs
Chapter 5. Race and Ancestry                                          II
1. The American Definition of "Negro"
2. African Ancestry
3. Changes in Physical Appearance
4. Early Miscegenation
5. Ante-Bellum Miscegenation
6. Miscegenation in Recent Times
7. "Passing"
8. Social and Biological Selection
9. Present and Future Genetic Composition Trends
Chapter 6. Racial Characteristics                                     I
i. Physical Traits
2. Biological Susceptibility to Disease
3. Psychic Traits
4. Frontiers of Constructive Research
PART III. POPULATION AND MIGRATION
Chapter 7. Pdpulation
i. The Growth of the Negro Population
2. Births and Deaths
3. Summary
4. Ends and Means of Population Policy
5. Controlling the Death Rate
6. The Case for Controlling the Negro Birth Rate
7. Birth Control Facilities for Negroes
Chapter 8. Migration                                                182
x. Overview
2. A Closer View
3. The Great Migration to the Urban North
4. Continued Northward Migration
5. The Future of Negro Migration
PART IV. ECONOMICS
Chapter 9. Economic Inequality                                      205
i. Negro Poverty
2. Our Main Hypothesis: The Vicious Circle
3. The Value Premises
4. The Conflict of Valuations
Chapter o10. The Tradition of Slavery                               220
i. Economic Exploitation
2. Slavery and Caste
3. The Land Problem
4. The Tenancy Problem
Chapter 11. The Southern Plantation Economy and the Negro
Farmer                                                230
i. Southern Agriculture as a Problem
2. Overpopulation and Soil Erosion
3. Tenancy, Credit and Cotton
4. The Boll Weevil
5. Main Agricultural Classes
6. The Negro Landowner
7. Historical Reasons for the Relative Lack of Negro Farm Owners
8. Tenants and Wage Laborers
9. The Plantation Tenant
Chapter 12. New Blows to Southern Agriculture During the
'Thirties: Trends and Policies                        251
x. Agricultural Trends during the 'Thirties
2. The Disappearing Sharecropper
3. The Role of the A.A.A. in Regard to Cotton
4. A.A.A. and the Negro
5. The Local Administration of the A.A.A.
6. Mechanization
7. Labor Organizations
8. The Dilemma of Agricultural Policy
9. Economic Evaluation of the A.A.A.
io. Social Evaluation of the A.A.A.
I1. Constructive Measures
12. Farm Security Programs
Chapter 13. Seeking Jobs Outside Agriculture                        279
I. Perspective on the Urbanization of the Negro People
2. In the South
3. A Closer View
4. Southern Trends during the 'Thirties
5. In the North
6. A Closer View on Northern Trends
7. The Employment Hazards of Unskilled Work
8. The Size of the Negro Labor Force and Negro Employment
9. Negro and White Unemployment
Chapter 14. The Negro in Business, the Professions, Public
Service and Other White Collar Occupations             304
i. Overview
2. The Negro in Business
3. Negro Finance
4. The Negro Teacher
5. The Negro Minister
6. The Negro in Medical Professions
7. Other Negro Professionals
8. Negro Officials and White Collar Workers in Public Service
9. Negro Professionals of the Stage, Screen and Orchestra
to. Note on Shady Occupations
Chapter 15. The Negro in the Public Economy                         333
1. The Public Budget
2. Discrimination in Public Service
3. Education
4. Public Health
5. Recreational Facilities
6. Public Housing Policies
7. Social Security and Public Assistance
8. Specialized Social Welfare Programs during the Period After
1935
9. The Social Security Program
o0. Assistance to Special Groups
Si. Work Relief
12. Assistance to Youth
13. General Relief and Assistance in Kind
Chapter 06. Income, Consumption and Housing                         364
i. Family Income
2. Income and Family Size
3. The Family Budget
4. Budget Items
5. Food Consumption
6. Housing Conditions
Chapter 17. The Mechanics of Economic Discrimination as a
Practical Problem                                     380
x. The Practical Problem
2. The Ignorance and Lack of Concern of Northern Whites
3. Migration Policy
4. The Regular Industrial Labor Market in the North
5. The Problem of Vocational Training
6. The Self-Perpetuating Color Bar
7. A Position of "Indifferent Equilibrium"
8. In the South
Chapter 18. Pre-War Labor Market Controls and Their Conse-
quences for the Negro                                 397
1. The Wages and Hours Law and the Dilemma of the Marginal
Worker
2. Other Economic Policies
3. Labor Unions and the Negro
4. A Weak Movement Getting Strong Powers
Chapter 19. The War Boom-and Thereafter                             409
I. The Negro Wage Earner and the War Boom
2. A Closer View
3. Government Policy in Regard to the Negro in War Production
4. The Negro in the Armed Forces
5. ... And Afterwards?
PART V. POLITICS
Chapter 20. Underlying Factors                                      429
i. The Negro in American Politics and as a Political Issue
2. The Wave of Democracy and the Need for Bureaucracy
3. The North and the South
4. The Southern Defense Ideology
5. The Reconstruction Amendments
6. Memories of Reconstruction
7. The Tradition of Illegality
Chapter 21. Southern Conservatism and Liberalism                    452
i. The "Solid South"
2. Southern Conservatism
3. Is the South Fascist?
4. The Changing South
5. Southern Liberalism
Chapter 22. Political Practices Today                              474
1. The Southern Political Scene
2. Southern Techniques for Disfranchising the Negroes
3. The Negro Vote in the South
4. The Negro in Northern Politics
5. What the Negro Gets Out of Politics
Chapter 23. Trends and Possibilities                               505
i. The Negro's Political Bargaining Power
2. The Negro's Party Allegiance
3. Negro Suffrage in the South as an Issue
4. An Unstable Situation
5. The Stake of the North
6. Practical Conclusions
Volume II
PART VI. JUSTICE
Chapter 24. Inequality of Justice                                  523
i. Democracy and Justice
2. Relative Equality in the North
3. The Southern Heritage
Chapter 25. The Police and Other Public Contacts                   535
I. Local Petty Officials
2. The Southern Policeman
3. The Policeman in the Negro Neighborhood
4. Trends and Outlook
5. Another Type of Public Contact
Chapter 26. Courts, Sentences and Prisons                          547
1. The Southern Courts
2. Discrimination in Court
3. Sentences and Prisons
4. Trends and Outlook
Chapter 27. Violence and Intimidation                              558
x. The Pattern of Violence
2. Lynching
3. The Psychopathology of Lynching
4. Trends and Outlook
5. Riots
PART VII. SOCIAL INEQUALITY
Chapter 28. The Basis of Social Inequality    '                    573
1. The Value Premise
2. The One-Sidedness of t6e System of Segregation
3. The Beginning of Slavery
4. The Jim Crow Laws
5. Beliefs Supporting Social Inequality
6. The Popular Theory of "No Social Equality"
7. Critical Evaluation of the "No Social Equality" Theory
8. Attitudes among Different Classes of Whites in the South
9. Social Segregation and Discrimination in the North
Chapter 29. Patterns of Social Segregation and Discrimination 605
1. Facts and Beliefs Regarding Segregation and Discrimination
2. Segregation and Discrimination in Interpersonal Relations
3. Housing Segregation
4. Sanctions for Residential Segregation
5. The General Character of Institutional Segregation
6. Segregation in Specific Types of Institutions
Chapter 30. Efects of Social Inequality                             640
i. The Incidence of Social Inequality
2. Increasing Isolation
3. Interracial Contacts
4. The Factor of Ignorance
5. Present Dynamics
PART VIII. SOCIAL STRATIFICATION
Chapter 31. Caste and Class                                         667
1. The Concepts "Caste" and "Class"
2. The "Meaning" of the Concepts "Caste" and "Class"
3. The Caste Struggle
4. Crossing the Caste Line
Chapter 32. The Negro Class Structure                               689
1. The Negro Class Order in the American Caste System
2. Caste Determines Class
3. Color and Class
4. The Classes in the Negro Community
PART IX. LEADERSHIP AND CONCERTED ACTION
Chapter 33. The American Pattern of Individual Leadership
and Mass Passivity                                     709
1. "Intelligent Leadership"
2. "Community Leaders"
3. Mass Passivity
4. The Patterns Exemplified in Politics and throughout the American
Social Structure
Chapter 34. Accommodating Leadership                                720
x. Leadership and Caste
2. The Interests of Whites and Negroes with Respect to Negro
Leadership
3. In the North and on the National Scene
4. The "Glass Plate"
5. Accommodating Leadership and Class
6. Several Qualifications
7. Accommodating Leaders in the North
8. The Glamour Personalities
Chapter 35. The Negro Protest                                        736
i. The Slave Revolts
2. The Negro Abolitionists and Reconstruction Politicians
3. The Tuskegee Compromise
4. The Spirit of Niagara and Harper's Ferry
5. The Protest Is Still Rising
6. The Shock of the First World War and the Post-War Crisis
7. The Garvey Movement
8. Post-War Radicalism among Negro Intellectuals
9. Negro History and Culture
io. The Great Depression and the Second World War
Chapter 36. The Protest Motive and Negro Personality                 757
1. A Mental Reservation
2. The Struggle Against Defeatism
3. The Struggle for Balance
4. Negro Sensitiveness
5. Negro Aggression
6. Upper Class Reactions
7. The "Function" of Racial Solidarity
Chapter 37. Compromise Leadership                                    768
1. The Daily Compromise
2. The Vulnerability of the Negro Leader
3. Impersonal Motives
4. The Protest Motive
5. The Double Role
6. Negro Leadership Techniques
7. Moral Consequences
8. Leadership Rivalry
9. Qualifications
Io. In Southern Cities
i1. In the North
12. On the National Scene
Chapter 38. Negro Popular Theories                                   781
i. Instability
2. Negro Provincialism
3. The Thinking on the Negro Problem
4. Courting the "Best People Among the Whites"
5. The Doctrine of Labor Solidarity
6. Some Critical Observations
7. The Pragmatic "Truth" of the Labor Solidarity Doctrine
8. "The Advantages of the Disadvantages"
9. Condoning Segregation
io. Boosting Negro Business
i1. Criticism of Negro Business Chauvinism
12. "Back to Africa"
13. Miscellaneous Ideologies
Chapter 39. Negro Improvement and Protest Organizations             8o10
1. A General American Pattern
2. Nationalist Movements
3. Business and Professional Organizations
4. The National Negro Congress Movement
5. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored
People
6. The N.A.A.C.P. Branches
7. The N.A.A.C.P. National Office
8. The Strategy of the N.A.A.C.P.
9. Critique of the N.A.A.C.P.
io. The Urban League
11. The Commission on Interracial Cooperation
12. The Negro Organizations during the War
13. Negro Strategy
Chapter 40. The Negro Church                                        858
i. Non-Political Agencies for Negro Concerted Action
2. Some Historical Notes
3. The Negro Church and the General American Pattern of
Religious Activity
4. A Segregated Church
5. Its Weakness
6. Trends and Outlook
Chapter 41. The Negro School                                        879
I. Negro Education as Concerted Action
2. Education in American Thought and Life
3. The Development of Negro Education in the South
4. The Whites' Attitudes toward Negro Education
5. "Industrial" versus "Classical" Education of Negroes
6. Negro Attitudes
7. Trends and Problems
Chapter 42. The Negro Press                                         9o8
i. An Organ for the Negro Protest
2. The Growth of the Negro Press
3. Characteristics of the Negro Press
4. The Controls of the Negro Press
5. Outlook
PART X. THE NEGRO COMMUNITY
Chapter 43. Institutions                                            927
I. The Negro Community as a Pathological Form of an American
Community
2. The Negro Family
3. The Negro Church in the Negro Community
4. The Negro School and Negro Education
5. Voluntary Associations
Chapter 44. Non-Institutional Aspects of the Negro Community 956
i. "Peculiarities" of Negro Culture and Personality
2. Crime
3. Mental Disorders and Suicide
4. Recreation
5. Negro Achievements
PART XI. AN AMERICAN DILEMMA
Chapter 45. America Again at the Crossroads in the Negro
Problem                                               997
i. The Negro Problem and the War
2. Social Trends
3. The Decay of the Caste Theory
4. Negroes in the War Crisis
5. The War and the Whites
6. The North Moves Toward Equality
7. Tension in the South
8. International Aspects
9. Making the Peace
io. America's Opportunity
Appendix i. A Methodological Note on Valuations and Beliefs 1027
i. The Mechanism of Rationalization
2. Theoretical Critique of the Concept "Mores"
3. Valuation Dynamics
Appendix 2. A Methodological Note on Facts and Valuations in
Social Science                                       1035
x. Biases in the Research on the American Negro Problem
2. Methods of Mitigating Biases in Social Science
3. The History and Logic of the Hidden Valuations in Social
Science
4. The Points of View Adopted in This Book
Appendix 3. A Methodological Note on the Principle of Cumu-
lation                                              o1065
Volume II
PART VI. JUSTICE
Chapter 24. Inequality of Justice                                  523
i. Democracy and Justice
2. Relative Equality in the North
3. The Southern Heritage
Chapter 25. The Police and Other Public Contacts                   535
I. Local Petty Officials
2. The Southern Policeman
3. The Policeman in the Negro Neighborhood
4. Trends and Outlook
5. Another Type of Public Contact
Chapter 26. Courts, Sentences and Prisons                          547
x. The Southern Courts
2. Discrimination in Court
3. Sentences and Prisons
4. Trends and Outlook
Chapter 27. Violence and Intimidation                              558
1. The Pattern of Violence
2. Lynching
3. The Psychopathology of Lynching
4. Trends and Outlook
5. Riots
PART VII. SOCIAL INEQUALITY
Chapter 28. The Basis of Social Inequality                         573
1. The Value Premise
2. The One-Sidedness of the System of Segregation
3. The Beginning of Slavery
V
4. The Jim Crow Laws
5. Beliefs Supporting Social Inequality
6. The Popular Theory of "No Social Equality"
7. Critical Evaluation of the "No Social Equality" Theory
8. Attitudes among Different Classes of Whites in the South
9. Social Segregation and Discrimination in the North
Chapter 29. Patterns of Social Segregation and Discrimination 605
1. Facts and Beliefs Regarding Segregation and Discrimination
2. Segregation and Discrimination in Interpersonal Relations
3. Housing Segregation
4. Sanctions for Residential Segregation
5. The General Character of Institutional Segregation
6. Segregation in Specific Types of Institutions
Chapter 30. Efects of Social Inequality                            640
1. The Incidence of Social Inequality
2. Increasing Isolation
3. Interracial Contacts
4. The Factor of Ignorance
5. Present Dynamics
PART VIII. SOCIAL STRATIFICATION
Chapter 31. Caste and Class                                        667
I. The Concepts "Caste" and "Class"
2. The "Meaning" of the Concepts "Caste" and "Class"
3. The Caste Struggle
4. Crossing the Caste Line
Chapter 32. The Negro Class Structure                              689
1. The Negro Class Order in the American Caste System
2. Caste Determines Class
3. Color and Class
4. The Classes in the Negro Community
PART IX. LEADERSHIP AND CONCERTED ACTION
Chapter 33. The American Pattern of Individual Leadership
and Mass Passivity                                    709
1. "Intelligent Leadership"
2. "Community Leaders"
3. Mass Passivity
4. The Patterns Exemplified in Politics and throughout the American
Social Structure
Chapter 34. Accommodating Leadership                               720
1. Leadership and Caste
2. The Interests of Whites and Negroes with Respect to Negro
Leadership
3. In the North and on the National Scene
4. The "Glass Plate"
5. Accommodating Leadership and Class
6. Several Qualifications
7. Accommodating Leaders in the North
8. The Glamour Personalities
Chapter 35. The Negro Protest                                        736
i. The Slave Revolts
2. The Negro Abolitionists and Reconstruction Politicians
3. The Tuskegee Compromise
4. The Spirit of Niagara.and Harper's Ferry
5. The Protest Is Still Rising
6. The Shock of the First World War and the Post-War Crisis
7. The Garvey Movement
8. Post-War Radicalism among Negro Intellectuals
9. Negro History and Culture
o10. The Great Depression and the Second World War
Chapter 36. The Protest Motive and Negro Personality                 757
i. A Mental Reservation
2. The Struggle Against Defeatism
3. The Struggle for Balance
4. Negro Sensitiveness
5. Negro Aggression
6. Upper Class Reactions
7. The "Function" of Racial Solidarity
Chapter 37. Compromise Leadership                                    768
i. The Daily Compromise
2. The Vulnerability of the Negro Leader
3. Impersonal Motives
4. The Protest Motive
5. The Double Role
6. Negro Leadership Techniques
7. Moral Consequences
8. Leadership Rivalry
9. Qualifications
io. In Southern Cities
i1. In the North
12. On the National Scene
Chapter 38. Negro Popular Theories                                   781
x. Instability
2. Negro Provincialism
3. The Thinking on the Negro Problem
4. Courting the "Best People Among the Whites"
5. The Doctrine of Labor Solidarity
6. Some Critical Observations
7. The Pragmatic "Truth" of the Labor Solidarity Doctrine
8. "The Advantages of the Disadvantages"
9. Condoning Segregation
io. Boosting Negro Business
I1. Criticism of Negro Business Chauvinism
12. "Back to Africa"
13. Miscellaneous Ideologies
Chapter 39. Negro Improvement and Protest Organizations             810o
i. A General American Pattern
2. Nationalist Movements
3. Business and Professional Organizations
4. The National Negro Congress Movement
5. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored
People
6. The N.A.A.C.P. Branches
7. The N.A.A.C.P. National Office
8. The Strategy of the N.A.A.C.P.
9. Critique of the N.A.A.C.P.
io. The Urban League
11. The Commission on Interracial Cooperation
12. The Negro Organizations during the War
13. Negro Strategy
Chapter 40. The Negro Church                                        858
I. Non-Political Agencies for Negro Concerted Action
2. Some Historical Notes
3. The Negro Church and the General American Pattern of
Religious Activity
4. A Segregated Church
5. Its .Weakness
6. Trends and Outlook
Chapter 41. The Negro School                                        879
1. Negro Education as Concerted Action
2. Education in American Thought and Life
3. The Development of Negro Education in the South
4. The Whites' Attitudes toward Negro Education
5. "Industrial" versus "Classical" Education of Negroes
6. Negro Attitudes
7. Trends and Problems
Chapter 42. The Negro Press                                         908
i. An Organ for the Negro Protest
2. The Growth of the Negro Press
3. Characteristics of the Negro Press
4. The Controls of the Negro Press
5. Outlook
PART X. THE NEGRO COMMUNITY
Chapter 43. Institutions                                          927
i. The Negro Community as a Pathological Form of an American
Community
2. The Negro Family
3. The Negro Church in the Negro Community
4. The Negro School and Negro Education
5. Voluntary Associations
Chapter 44. Non-Institutional Aspects of the Negro Community 956
1. "Peculiarities" of Negro Culture and Personality
2. Crime
3. Mental Disorders and Suicide
4. Recreation
5. Negro Achievements
PART XI. AN AMERICAN DILEMMA
Chapter 45. America Again at the Crossroads in the Negro
Problem                                             997
1. The Negro Problem and the War
2. Social Trends
3. The Decay of the Caste Theory
4. Negroes in the War Crisis
5. The War and the Whites
6. The North Moves Toward Equality
7. Tension in the South
8. International Aspects
9. Making the Peace
io. America's Opportunity
Appendix i. A Methodological Note on Valuations and Beliefs 1027
I. The Mechanism of Rationalization
2. Theoretical Critique of the Concept "Mores"
3. Valuation Dynamics
Appendix 2. A Methodological Note on Facts and Valuations in
Social Science                                     1035
i. Biases in the Research on the American Negro Problem
2. Methods of Mitigating Biases in Social Science
3. The History and Logic of the Hidden Valuations in Social
Science
4. The Points of View Adopted in This Book
Appendix 3. A Methodological Note on the Principle of Cumu-
lation                                             1065
Appendix 4. Note on the Meaning of Regional Terms as Used
in This Book                                      1071
Appendix 5. A Parallel to the Negro Problem                    1073
Appendix 6. Pre-War Conditions of the Negro Wage Earner in
Selected Industries and Occupations               1079
1. General Characteristics of Negro Jobs
2. Domestic Service
3. Other Service Occupations
4. Turpentine Farms
5. Lumber
6. The Fertilizer Industry
7. Longshore Work
8. Building Workers
9. Railroad Workers
o10. Tobacco Workers
11. Textile Workers
12. Coal Miners
13. Iron and Steel Workers
14. Automobile Workers
15. The Slaughtering and Meat Packing Industry
Appendix 7. Distribution of Negro Residences in Selected Cities I I125
Appendix 8. Research on Caste and Class in a Negro Com-
munity                                            1129
Appendix 9. Research on Negro Leadership                        1133
Appendix 10. Quantitative Studies of Race Attitudes            I 136
1. Existing Studies of Race Attitudes
2. The Empirical Study of Valuations and Beliefs
3. "Personal" and "Political" Opinions
4. The Practical Study of Race Prejudice
List of Books, Pamphlets, Periodicals, and Other Material Re-
ferred to in This Book                                       1144
Numbered Footnotes                                             I181
Index                                                          144T



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: African Americans, United States Race relations