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Chapter I Introduction 1 I. Definition of Dumping and Subsidy - Conditions for Taking Action 3 II. Brief Description of the Procedure 4 Schematic Diagram: How an Investigation Proceeds in Anti-dumping/Anti-subsidies Cases 7 Chapter II Substantial Issues of Dumping and Subsidies 9 I. Basic Principles Regarding Dumping and Subsidies 9 II. Definition of a Subsidy - Countervailable and Non- Countervailable Subsidies 10 A. Countervailable Subsidies: The Condition of Being Specific 11 B. Non-countervailable Subsidies 12 C. The Annexes to the Anti-subsidies Regulation 13 1. Annex I: A Non-exhaustive List of Export Subsidies 13 2. Annex II: Guidelines on Consumption of Inputs in the Production Process 15 3. Annex III: Guidelines on the Determination of Substitution Drawback Systems as Export Subsidies 16 III. Calculation of Dumping and Countervailable Subsidies 16 A. Determination of Dumping 16 1. 'Like Product' 17 2. Normal Value 24 a. No Production or Sales of the Like Product by the Exporter 25 b. Sales between Associated Entities/Entities having a Compensatory Arrangement 25 c. Representative Domestic Sales of the Like Product 26 d. Constructed Normal Value: No or Insufficient Sales of the Like Product/No Chance of Comparison Due to Particular Market Situation 26 e. Sales at Prices below Unit Production Costs 28 f. Constructed Normal Value: Calculation of Costs 29 i. The Records of the Parties 29 ii. Allocation of Costs 29 iii. Start-up Operations 30 g. Constructed Normal Value: Determination of the Amounts for Selling, General and Administrative Costs and Profits 31 h. Normal Value of Products Imported from Traditional Non-market Economy Countries 31 i. Market Economy Treatment (MET) for Companies 33 j. Country-wide Market Economy Status (MES) 40 3. Export Price 42 4. Comparison 43 a. Physical Characteristics 44 b. Import Charges and Indirect Taxes 44 c. Discounts, Rebates and Quantities 44 d. Level of Trade 44 e. Transport, Insurance, Handling, Loading and Ancillary Costs 45 f. Packing 45 g. Credit 45 h. After-sales Costs 46 i. Commissions 46 j. Currency Conversions 47 k. Other Factors 47 5. Dumping Margin 47 B. Calculation of the Amount of Countervailable Subsidies 49 1. Calculation of Benefit to the Recipient 49 2. General Provisions on Calculation of Countervailable Subsidies 50 a. Elements Deductible from the Total Amount of Subsidy 50 b. Subsidy Granted by Reference Other than the Quantities Manufactured, Produced, Exported, or Transported 50 c. Subsidy Linked to Acquisition of Fixed Assets 50 IV. Determination of Injury 51 A. Injury 51 1. Injury Indicators 53 B. Causation 57 C. Other Factors Causing Injury 57 D. Threat of Material Injury 61 E. Material Retardation 62 V. Definition of Community Industry 63 A. Major Proportion 63 B. Community Producers Who are Related to Exporters/ Importers, or are Importers Themselves of the Product 64 C. Regional Industry 68 VI. Sampling 69 Chapter III Procedural Issues of Dumping and Subsidies 71 I. Initiation of an Anti-dumping/Anti-subsidies Procedure: the Filing of a Complaint 71 A. Legal Basis 71 B. Form and Content of the Complaint 71 C. Selectivity of the Complaint 77 D. Withdrawal of the Complaint 78 E. The Position of Complainants Once an Anti-dumping/ Anti-subsidies Complaint has been Lodged 79 F. Legal Remedies with Regard to the Commission's Handling of the Complaint 81 1. Action for Annulment 81 2. Action for Failure to Act 83 II. The Procedure Following the Initiation of Proceedings 84 A. Initiation of Proceedings 84 B. Requests for Information: No Obligation of the Parties to Co-operate and Provide It 86 C. Verification of Information by the Commission: No Obligation of the Parties to Co-operate and Submit to On-the-spot Investigations 88 D. Non-cooperation of the Parties - Best Information Available Rule 93 E. Procedural Safeguards for the Parties Involved in an Anti-dumping/Anti-subsidies Investigation 95 F. The Right to a Fair Hearing 96 1. Access to Information 97 a. Access to the File 97 i. Legal Basis - Conditions of Access - Categories of Entitled Parties 97 ii. The Content of the File that should be Accessible to the Parties 99 iii. Forms of Access to the File 101 b. The Right to be Informed of the Essential Facts and Considerations and the Right to Make Submissions Thereon 102 2. The Right to be Heard 106 G. The Right to Confidential Treatment of Information 109 H. The Right to Meet Opponents: Confrontation Meetings 117 I. The Assessment of the Community Interest Prior to the Imposition of Anti-dumping/Countervailing Measures (Community Interest Test) 118 1. Substantive Issues 118 2. Procedural Issues 122 Chapter IV The Outcome of Anti-dumping/Anti-subsidies Investigations 129 I. Imposition of Provisional Measures by the Commission 129 A. Prerequisites for the Imposition of Provisional Duties 129 B. Procedure for the Imposition of Provisional Duties 130 C. Duration of Provisional Duties 130 II. Termination of Investigation by Acceptance of Undertakings by the Commission 131 A. Prerequisites for the Acceptance of Undertakings by the Commission and Consequences Thereof 131 B. The Option of the Commission to Suggest Undertakings 134 C. Obligations of the Parties Offering/Accepting Undertakings 135 D. Breach or Withdrawal of Undertakings 135 E. Example of an Acceptable Undertaking 137 III. Termination of the Proceedings Without Measures - Imposition of Definitive Duties by the Commission 138 A. Termination Without Measures - De Minimis 138 B. Imposition of Definitive Duties 140 C. Retroactive Application of Measures 143 IV. Duration of Measures - Reviews 145 A. Expiry Reviews 145 B. Interim Reviews 155 C. Newcomer Reviews in Anti-dumping Cases 155 D. Accelerated Reviews in Anti-subsidies Cases 157 E. Time-limits for Reviews 157 F. General Provisions on Reviews 158 V. Refunds 159 A. The Notice of the Commission Regarding Refunds 160 1. General Issues 160 a. The Persons Entitled to Apply for Reimbursement 160 b. Establishment of Revised Dumping Margin 160 c. The Parties that have to Co-operate for a Successful Refund Application 161 d. Deadlines Regarding Submission of Applications, Decisions by the Commission, Payment by Member States' Authorities 161 e. The Sum that may be Refunded 162 2. Procedural Issues 162 a. Lodging the Application - Form and Content of the Application 162 b. Submission of the Application 162 c. Time-limits for the Submission of an Application 163 d. Recurring Applications 164 3. Substantive Issues 164 a. Investigation of a Refund Application 164 i. Evidence Requested from the Applicant 164 ii. Evidence Requested from the Exporting Producer 165 (a) Representative Period 165 (b) Questionnaires 165 iii. Analysis of Merits ' 166 (a) General Methodology 166 (b) Construction of the Export Price 166 (c) Use of Review Findings 166 (d) Extrapolation 166 iv. Non-cooperation of the Parties Involved - Best Information Available Rule 167 v. Disclosure for Importers - Co-operating Exporters 167 4. Results of a Successful Refund Application 167 a. Excess Amount to be Repaid 167 b. Payment 168 c. Revocation of a Decision to Reimburse 168 VI. Absorption of Measures 169 VII. Circumvention of Measures 171 VIII. Suspension of Measures 177 IX. General Provisions - Publication of Measures - Consultations 178 Chapter V Judicial Review of the Various Commission Decisions in Anti-dumping/Anti-subsidies Cases 181 I. Action for Annulment: Challengeable Acts and the Locus Standi of the Interested Persons 181 A. Initiation by the Commission of an Anti-dumping or an Anti-subsidies Proceeding 182 B. Regulations Imposing Anti-dumping or Countervailing Duties 184 1. Exporters and Producers 186 2. Importers 193 3. Complainants and Community Producers Supporting the Complaint 197 4. Users and Consumers 198 C. Actions against Regulations Imposing Provisional Duties Superseded by a Definitive Regulation 199 D. Action against the Termination Without Measures 199 E. Action against the Council's Failure to Adopt a Regulation Imposing Definitive Duties 200 F. Action against a Refusal of the Council to Grant Retroactivity to a Regulation Reducing the Anti-dumping Duty 205 G. Action against a Decision Terminating a Review Proceeding 205 II. Actions for Failure to Act - Actions for Damages 206 Indicative Bibliography 215 Case Law of the European Courts 219 Community Institutions' Acts Imposing Measures 223