Table of contents for A history of American medicine from the colonial period to the early twentieth century / Luis H. Toledo-Pereyra.


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CHAPTER 1: Europeans Invade Indian America .......................... ..........
Arrival of the English to America: First Permanent Settlement .......... .... 1
Defining the Medical Scene .   .      . ...   ...   ...    3...  . 3
Native American Medicine and Medical Practices .                   4
Differences Between Indiar and English Medicine.....   ..          8
Diseases Affecting English Colonial America ...                   10
Other Key Factors and First English Physiciarn Settlers..............  12
Medical Education Amongst Jamnestown Practitioners                15
Conclusion.... ...         ..                    ..  .. ..        16
CHAPTER 2: Colonists Impose Themselves .l.l ......... 17
More About English American Colonial Medicine...;...... ......... ..... 17
Medial Theory and Practice... .. .... .. .  ... .  .......... ...  19
Status of Physicians in England and the Colonies......           20
Medical Education in England and English Ierica  ,                21
Educated European Physicians Migrating to the Colonies..          26
Laws Regulating Physicians in the Colonies... .. ....  ..        26
Different Types of Medical Practitioners of the Colonies .............. 29
M edicine  M en.2... .   .... .  ....         ........__...     29
Surgeons and barber surgeons .....          ...              _ _29
Apothecaries       ....  .  -..........  .. ......              30
Midwives.....                                                   31
Clerics .....                                                   32
Ministers  .  _.... ..... .....33
Notable Physicians of Mid- and Late Colonial Times ...33
Introduction of Inoculation to the English Colonies  ...36
Other Diseases Besides Smallpox..............._ ...              39
Medical Books and Other Publications .........  .... ..          40
Other Medical Treatments ..   ......  .....    .... ............ ...41
Hospital Development in the American Colonies .  .. ......       42
Conclusion  .;  ...  .      .   .  .._  .............._  ... . .. 43
CHAPTER 3: Europeans Knew Medicine Before ......................... 45
Influence of Medical Men of Antiquity ......   .. ..  .........  a  . 46
Late Middle Ages and Early Renaissance            .n ....            46
Late Renaissance and Early Modern Era...... ...........              48
World of Sydenham aind Boerhaave . _ r .....6..  ...... ......... ... 49
Influence of the Edinburgh School of Medicine ...  .  ....   .......... 52
Influence of John Hunter..     .    .      ....                      53
European Physicians Coming to the English Amerncan Coloni...s        55
Specific Treatments in English Colonial America ... .........        55
Conclusionl  .....D.. .t..m  o....  ..6........   ........... .. .   56
CHAPTER 4: Medicine Gets Academic         ...........  .59....... . ........ ....... ...... 59
Medical Education Before Medical Schools . ...  .....  .       ...... 59
Medical Schools in Europe Before 1800.,  .......             ..     i60
Origin of the First English-Speaking American Medical Schools  .......... 61
Early Entrance and Graduation Requirements Before 1800               62
General Teaching Practices in Early American Medical Schools..:.._.m..  63
Early Medical Schools Curriculum, 1800s... .l...  ..... .........    63
Highlights of Some of the First British American Medical Schools..........  64
The Medical Deparntmernt of the College of Philadelphia, 1765 ...._ 64
Medical Faculy f King's College, New York. 1 767 .. .         .......66
Medical School of Harvard College, 1782 .... .... ..               67
Medical Department ofDar-tmouth, 179 7........                    68
College of Medicine of Maryland, Baltimore, 1807.                  69
Medical Institution of Yale College, 1810.....                     69
University of Michigan Medical School, 1850. _ _..........69
Johns Hopkins University Medical School, 1893  ......  .70
Conclusion .    ....                                         ........ ..  ....  71
CHAPTER 5: And Now We Can Put Them to Sleep          ........          73
Brief History  of Pan Control....w........w.... .. .....w.  ...;... 3......  73
Other Chemical Advances ......  1....... .  7...4.........4
History of Anesthesia-Early Encounters in the United States of America  75...
Difficulties in Assigning a Single Discoverer.  .          ......    80
Results on the Battle for Supremacy ......                           81
Final Outcome and Consequences.. ....              ..  ....  ......  82
What Has Been the Impact of the Introduction of Anesthesia?  .....   84
Conclusion      . ......   .  ....  ...  . .....                     85
CHAPTER 6: Not Only Regular Doctors Cure .. 8.....7.......... S7
Reasons for the Development of Irregular Doctors...                  87
The Age of Heroic Medicine           :....   .....                   88
Schools of Irregular Medicine .... .       ....                      92
Homeopathy   ... ..    .....                                       92
Botanical Medicine .........          .          ...               95
Thomsonianism                                                      96
clectic-Reformed .    ..........99
Phrenology...                                 ...                  99
Osteopathyi ......    ..                                          100
Chiropractics ..  _  .....                                    ...102
Other Irregular Movements .                 ... .... .              104
chr,istian Science Healing  ....                         .. .....  .. 104
Other Movements. ........ ..                        ......      -104
Divine Healing ..  ......        .  .    .....             ----   04
Folk  medicine ..  l  i. ..........  , .....            .. -......... 105
Conclusion-                ....                              ...    106
"Woren in American Med0ne......   .........                         109
General Aspects  . ....    ..                    .    .    .......  09
Elizabeth Blackwell (1821-1910) ,--.......                         110
First Medical Schools to Accept Women in the United States. ......I I
Some Other Notable Women Physicians in the United States ........  l112i
Lydia Folger Fowler (1822-1879) ........... .. .....  ....113
Emily Blackwell (1826-91 0) ...... ..   .. .....  .....       1   13
Marie Elizabeth Zakrzewska ( 1829-1902)  1...--14
Other Notable American Women Physicians                            115
Blacks in American Medicine ....11..... . ....                      115
General Aspects      .,  ....  .  .....  .......115
First Black American Physicians.. .. ... --.......                 116
Other Prominent Black American Physicians  .........1i8
Dale Hale  W illiams .....  ......1...........18
Solomon Carter Fuller.. .   ......                .......        119
Howard, Meharry, and Others..                                      120
A  Few  Other Remarks . .... ....       . ....... .......r. ...  ...  121
Conclusion      .         .....121
CHAPTER 8: Nation up in Arms........i. .. ..........  .....           123
Medical Statistics,                                   .. -...       123
Care of the Injured and Diseased Soldierst. ......  .  ...........s--- 125
Competency of Medica Practitioners  -........-..                    129
Development of the United States Sanitary Commission...  ...        130
Other Important Highlights of the Civil War...... ........          132
Medical Advances During the Civil War .................             135
Conclusion  .. ... . -. ......          ............. .. ...        1 35
CHAPTER 9: Amaericas Reject Science.,.......    . .               ...... 137
Utilitarian American Beliefs.....e .. .. . ..-...                   137
Simplicity Negates Science ....  ...... .... ..... ..               138
Opposition to the Germ Theory of the Disease                        139
Opposition to Research....  ........  .. .           .              140
Lack of Education and Acadmic Standards..             ........      14
Conclusion  ...                      ..             .....143
CHAPTER 10: Knife at Work and the Bugs W        .   ... .......   ...  145
Early American Surgeons.... ...    .....                  ............. 145
Nineteenth Century American Surgeons Prior o 846   ..........146
American Surgeons from 1846 to 1867...... ..            ........... 148
Sernme weis - Pasteur - Koch - Lister                 .             149
Liste's Method in More Detail .. .....  .                  ..    . 150
American Surgeons After 1867 and the Practice of Listerism . ..........   151
Conclusion .. ..3. ..       ... .. ... . . . ... ..  ... p53.  .
CHAPTER 11: Hopkins Takes the Lead .      ............. . .....    155
Preambles to Johns Hopkins Medical School .... ....  .. ..        155
Founding of Johns Hopkins University. .....1.... ...   .. .....   158
Development of Johns Hopkins Hospital....  .. .... ...  . ......  159
Integration of Johns Hopkins Medical School  ..          .. ...160
Conclusion.... . ....16...   .                                    16...... _2......  .... . .  62
CHAPTER 12: Modern Araerianss Arrive wth Morw      The Twentieth
Century Unfolds       ....... .  .. ..  ..  .....  ...      _ ... . 165
Closing of the Nineteenth Century ......... _6... -.._.........   65
An Important Development: The Flexner Report... ...... ......     167
Early Twentieth Century: First Third .                            1. ......  ......  68
Brief Remarks About the Rest of the Century .......   ..........  169
Conclusion  ...............   ....                           ;     1 -.: I.l. ........ . ....   70



Library of Congress subject headings for this publication: Medicine United States History, History of Medicine United States, History, 17th Century United States, History, 18th Century United States, History, 19th Century United States, History, 20th Century United States